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Adriana Silva-Valio

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Adriana Silva-Valio

Title: Solar Physics in Brazil

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Alberto Rogriguez Ardila

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Alberto Rodriguez Ardila

Title: The SOAR telescope: new opportunities for Brazilian Astronomy

Abstract: The SOAR telescope, in science operations since 2005, broadened the capacity to carry out state-of-the-art research in astronomy in Brazil and opened unique paths to support the development of astronomical instrumentation in our country. With its 4.1m mirror telescope, it was projected to deliver astronomical images with a superior quality, aimed at being one of the best of its class in the world. In this talk I will describe the current status of SOAR, including the instrumentation already installed and the new instruments arriving in the coming two years. Emphasis will be given in the research areas that will strongly benefit from this facilty.

Alberto Santoro

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Alberto Santoro

Title: Lattes: From the Small Pion to the Large Centauro

Abstract: We intend to show part of the work of Lattes in Cosmic Rays and Accelerator Physics since the discovery of the Pion Meson till the Centauro as a new phenomena in Cosmic Rays. We will present too the possibility to observe Centauro in LHC experiments. We would like to show how changed the associated technologies for High Energy Physics experimentation and the consequences for the whole society.

Alonso Sepulveda

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Alonso Sepulveda

Title: A new approach to Mach principle

Abstract: As a new proposal concernig to an axiomatic formulation of the Mach principle, expressed in a new conceptual basis, we revisit the notion of covariant derivative familiar in quantum field theory and general relativity. This revised notion can be found also in classical an relativist mechanics. The main features of the so called Mach principle can be recovered and described with this approach.

Elisabete Maria de Gouveia Dal Pino

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Elisabete Maria de Gouveia Dal Pino

Title: Cosmic Magnetic Fields

Abstract: Most of the visible matter in the Universe is in a plasma state, or more specifically is composed of ionized or partially ionized gas permeated by magnetic fields. Thanks to recent advances on the theory and detection of cosmic magnetic fields there has been a worldwide growing interest in the study of their role on the formation of astrophysical sources and the structuring of the Universe. There seems to be now no doubts that magnetic fields play a crucial role in: star formation, solar and stellar activity, pulsars, accretion disks, formation and stability of jets, and formation and propagation of cosmic rays. They are also probably crucial in: the interstellar medium, supernova remnants, gamma-ray bursts, and the galaxy structure, but its importance is still not well understood in: stellar evolution, galaxy evolution, and structure formation in the early Universe. In this lecture, I will briefly review the importance of the cosmic magnetic fields both from a theoretical and from an observational perspective, particularly focusing on stellar and compact objects, the interstellar medium and star formation regions, and on galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and the primordial Universe.

Felix Aharonian

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Felix Aharonan

Title: Exploring Nature's Extreme Accelerators with VHE Gamma Rays, Neutrinos and Hard X-rays

Abstract: Many cosmic accelerators, both of galactic and extragalactic origin, operate as extreme particle accelerators, i.e. accelerate particles at maximum possible rate allowed by classical electrodynamics and plasma physics. I will describe the basic features of these accelerators and discuss the possible ways of exploring their properties via observations of very high energy gamma-rays, neutrinos and hard X-rays.

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Felix Mirabel

Title: Black Holes in the Universe

Abstract: I shall present the observational evidences on the existence of black holes: 1) as remnants of the most massive stars observed in binary systems, and 2) as the most massive individual objects in the Universe found at the dynamic centre of galaxies. In particular, I will concentrate on the relation between accretion and relativistic ejection, as well as in the role of black holes in cosmic evolution.

 

Francis Everitt

Title:

Abstract:

Hugo Christiansen

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Hugo Christiansen

Title: TeV neutrinos and gamma-rays from relativistic astrophysical jets

Abstract: Astrophysical jets of matter and radiation occur in active galactic nuclei as well as in some special galactic binary systems. The detailed analysis of particle interactions in binaries including compact objects -like LSI +61 303 and the microquasar SS 433- suggests that very high-energy gamma-rays and neutrinos could arise from hadronic interactions taking place in polar jets originated in black holes and neutron stars. Relativistic pp collisions in the jets give rise to very energetic charged pions rapidly decaying into leptons. Among these, high-energy muon-neutrinos above 1 TeV are expected to be detected with ICECUBE in the next few years. Cooling and accelerating hadron processes are important in order to evaluate the final maximal proton energies. Considering that the fractional power of ultra-relativistic protons can be determined by means of the most restrictive observational data, the local steady distribution of parent pions and the resulting gamma-rays and neutrino fluxes can be thereafter theoretically predicted.

Joao Braga

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Joao Braga

Title: The MIRAX Project

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Laerte Sodre

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Laerte Sodre

Title: Large Scale Structure

Abstract: In this lecture I will discuss how galaxies are distributed in the universe, from the scale of groups to clusters and superclusters and show, as well, how the environment affects galaxy properties- including their morphology. Galaxies, however, are only the tip of the iceberg, since most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter, whose nature is still unknown. I will review the evidences for dark matter and how observations of the large scale structure properties are helping to constrain the nature and properties of this still mysterious component.

Luis F. Urrutia

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Luis F. Urrutia

Title: Lorentz invariance violation

Abstract: Experimental efforts to verify the validity of active Lorentz and CPT invariance have been already pursued for a long time. Recently, such interest has been enhanced from the theoretical perspective since the proposal suggesting that Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) could arise due to a foamy or granular structure of space-time. This suggestion sparkled immediate interest in identifying fundamental theories that could generate these effects. The most natural choice to look for is a dynamical theory of space-time at the quantum level; that is to say quantum gravity, where most of the developing candidates share the belief that the description of space-time will suffer important deviations from its standard view as a continuum, when we are in the Planck scale regime. Even though preliminary estimations of the induced corrections in particle propagation at standard model energies have been proposed, up to now there is no systematic derivation of any semiclassical approximation, starting from a fundamental quantum gravity theory for example, that could determine the exact nature of the possible corrections, if any. The challenge of such derivation remains open and it will be relevant to select a correct quantum gravity theory among the different proposals. This situation has prompted the construction and analysis of effective field theory models, which capture the basic ingredients that we expect to survive at standard model energies when LIV is present, in order to correlate the numerous and diverse experimental and observational test carried to probe those symmetries. At present, all observational test of LIV lead to negligible violation, codified in the very stringent limits set upon the LIV parameters. Nevertheless, some open windows for new physics from this perspective still remain. A review of these developments is presented in the talk.

Luis Herrera

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Luis Herrera

Title: Relativistic fluids and the physics of gravitational collapse

Abstract: We present a review on different approaches to describe the structure and evolution of self-gravitating fluids. Particular attention is paid to bringing out the relevance of some physical aspects of the source such as dissipative processes and the local anisotropy of pressure.

Mac Keiser 

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Mac Keiser 

Title: Gravity Probe B

Abstract: The Gravity Probe B satellite was launched on April 20, 2004, into a 640 km altitude polar orbit. The payload included four cryogenic, spherical, electrostatically supported gyroscopes which were designed to measure the geodetic and frame-dragging precessions predicted by general relativity. In the chosen orbit, the predicted geodetic precession has a magnitude of 6.6 arc-seconds per year and lies in the orbital plane, while the predicted frame-dragging precession has a magnitude of 39 milli-arc-seconds per year in a direction perpendicular to the orbital plane. The orientations of each of the four gyroscope spin axes were measured relative to a reference star, IM Pegasi, using a cryogenic Cassegranian telescope. The residual acceleration of the spacecraft was reduced to less that 10-11 g using one of the gyroscopes as the drag-free reference and thrust provided by boil-off gas from the superfluid liquid helium dewar. The liquid helium maintained the gyroscopes and telescope at 1.8 K until September 29, 2005. This talk will discuss the flight hardware, on-orbit operations, and the analysis of the data.

Mario Hamuy

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Mario Hamuy 

Title: Measuring the Universe with Type Ia supernovae

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Mario Novello

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Mario Novello

Title: História da Cosmologia: do Big-Bang ao Universo Eterno

Abstract: 

Nelson Pinto Neto

Nelson Pinto Neto

Title: The bounce confronts the big-bang

Abstract: We describe how well motivated eternal cosmological models, with a bounce preceding the present expansion phase, can solve many of the usual issues of the Standard Cosmological Model, specially concerning initial conditions and the formation of structures in the Universe.

Odylio Aguiar

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Odylio Aguiar 

Title: Gravitational Waves: from the last test of Einstein's General Relativity to a new window to observe the Universe

Abstract: The quest for gravitational wave detection has been one of the toughest technological challenges ever faced by experimental physicists and engineers. Despite the null results to date, after almost five decades of research, the community involved in this area is continuously growing. One of the main reasons for this is because the first gravitational wave detection and the regular observation of gravitational waves are among the most important scientific goals for the beginning of this millennium. Gravitational Waves are the last test of Einstein's theory of general relativity, and its regular detection will open a new window for the observation of the universe, which certainly will cause a revolution in our knowledge of physics and astrophysics.

Pablo Laguna

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Pablo Laguna 

Title: Numerical Relativity

Abstract: A new era in astronomy will begin once gravitational wave interferometers detect first light. These detectors will give us a revolutionary view of the Universe, complementary to the electromagnetic and particle astrophysics perspective. In this new astronomy, the messengers are gravitational waves, waves such as those produced by binary systems consisting of black holes and/or neutron stars. The detection of gravitational waves is a formidable undertaking, requiring innovative engineering, powerful data analysis tools and careful theoretical modeling. In support of this theoretical modeling, there is an urgent need to develop generic numerical codes capable of assisting us in exploring where and how gravitational wave observations can constrain or inform our understanding of astronomical phenomena and gravity. This talk will review the latest developments in the effort to simulate compact object binaries involving black holes and the potential role of these simulations as tools in a multi-messenger astronomy.

Remo Ruffini

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Remo Ruffini

Title: Black holes energetics

Abstract:

Ronald Shellard

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Ronald Shellard

Title: Messengers from Extreme Worlds

Abstract: The construction of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina was completed in June 2008. Nevertheless, it was taking data since 2004, as it was growing. At the end of 2007 Auger announced the discovery of a correlation between the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays and the positions of galaxies with active nuclei (AGN). The data indicates as well, an upper limit to the possibility that the highest energy cosmic rays are generated from high energy photons. This put a severe constraints into models that describe the highest energy cosmic rays as coming from primeval particles, associated to new physical phenomena. The spectrum of the cosmic rays was also measured and the GKZ limit at the highest energies confirmed. The implication of this measurements will be discussed in this seminar. The future plans of the Auger will be presented as well.

Thyrso Villela

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Thyrso Villela

Title: The Brazilian Space Program: Scientific and Applications Satellites

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Tom Nash

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Tom Nash 

Title: Gravity Waves

Abstract: General relativity predicts gravity waves that propagate at the speed of light like radio, but sourced by quadrupole and higher moment motion of masses. They have been detected only indirectly, in the quadratically increasing spin down of binary pulsars. Gravity waves distort space-time so one arm of an L-shaped laser interferometer shortens and the other lengthens as the wave passes. Two LIGO interferometers are 3000 km apart and have arms 4 km long. Now about to start a multi-year science run with enhancements to the detector, they are sensitive to length changes of a fraction of an electron's classical diameter over 4 km at audio frequencies. I will introduce the experimental techniques and describe the detectors that have this incredible sensitivity. Gravity waves are emitted by a variety of "contemporary" sources in the universe and they may be present as stochastic relicts of the earliest universe. They are the only potential window to the first moments of the big bang well before the microwave background was formed. I will describe results to date, plans for increased sensitivity, and the world-wide network of detectors now forming with instruments in Europe and Asia.

Zulema Abraham

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Zulema Abraham

Title: Black Holes, the central engines of Active Galactic Nuclei

Abstract: In this conference I will discuss the different observational evidences which point out to the existence of supermassive Black Holes (BHs) in the center of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), which can only be detected though the emission of their surrounding accretion disks. In addition to the remarkable mass density, BHs may have large rotation energy, and affect the dynamics of the accretion disk and associated jets, producing their precession though the Lense Thirring effect. Using interferometric techniques at radio wavelengths it was possible to probe the inner regions of AGNs with a resolution of milliarcseconds, which resulted in the discovery of bent parsec scale jets with variable superluminal velocities, which can be interpreted as a consequence of precession. The apparent superluminal velocities are produced if the jet has relativistic bulk velocity and it is propagating in a direction very close to the line of sight. Due to viscosity, the inner parts of the accretion disk will tend to align with the BH equator, producing a warped disk configuration which can also be observed

 
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