ICRANet
The 2015 Scientific Report
Presented to
The Scientific Committee
by
Remo Ruffini
Director of ICRANet
ICRANet has been created by a law of the Italian Government, ratified unanimously by the Italian Parliament and signed by the President of the Republic of Italy on February 10^{th}
2005. The Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Italy, the Vatican State, ICRA, the University of Arizona and the Stanford
University have been the Founding Members. All of them have ratified the Statute of ICRANet (see Enclosure 1). On September 12^{th}
2005 the Board of Governors was established and had its first meeting. Professors Remo Ruffini and Fang LiZhi were appointed respectively Director and Chairman of the Board. On December 19^{th}
2006 the Scientific Committee was established and had its first meeting in Washington DC. Prof. Riccardo Giacconi was appointed Chairman and John Mester CoChairman. On September 21^{st}
2005 the Director of ICRANet signed with the Ambassador of Brazil Dante Coelho De Lima the adhesion of Brazil to ICRANet. The entrance of Brazil, requested by the President of Brazil Luiz Ignácio Lula Da Silva has been unanimously ratified by the Brazilian Parliament. On February 2009 the board renewed the position of Prof. Fang LiZhi as the Chairman of the Board. On December 2009 the Scientific Committee renewed the position of Prof. Riccardo Giacconi as the Chairman of the Committee. On February 2010 the board renewed the position of Prof. Remo Ruffini as the Director of the ICRANet. On August 12^{th},
2011 the President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff signed the entrance of Brazil in ICRANet. On October 15^{th}, 2012, following the death of Prof. Fang LiZhi, Prof. Francis Everitt was appointed Chairman of the Board and Prof. XiaoHui Fan and Prof.
ShuFang Su were indicated as temporary substitutes of Prof. Fang. On June 12^{th}, 2013, following the completion of his second mandate, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi has resigned as Chairman of the Scientific Committee on the completion of his 81^{st}
birthday. Prof. João Braga was then appointed Chairman of the Scientific Committee and Prof. Massimo Della Valle was appointed CoChairman (details on http://www.icranet.org/).
In December 2013, during the visit at the University of Arizona of Prof. Remo Ruffini, Director of ICRANet, it was agreed with the Dean of the University of Arizona to appoint Prof. XiaoHui Fan as the successor of Prof. Fang LiZhi in representing the University of Arizona in the ICRANet Board. In May 2014 Prof. João Braga resigned from the Scientific Committee. ICRANet launched an open
call, with the support of the Brazilian Physical Society and of the Brazilian Astronomical Society, for a new representative of Brazil in the Scientific Committee. The call selected Prof. Kepler de Souza Oliveira Filho (see Enclosure 2).
This candidature was submitted to MCTI (Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology and Innovations).
In
the meantime Prof. Kepler was appointed vicepresident of the
Brazilian Astronomical Society, which added to his already duties as
Chairman of the CNPq Committee for Astronomy and Physics. In
August 2014 Dr. Ademar Seabra
Da Cruz
of
Itamaraty has
been appointed as the
head
representative
of Brazil in the ICRANet Board.
ICRANet is still waiting for the additional nomination of the
representatives of the MCTI in the Board and in the Scientific
Committee.
During 2015, we have:

adjourned
and recruited the Scientific Staff of ICRANet, including the adjunct
Faculty, Lecturers, Research Scientists, Visiting Scientists;
adjourned and recruited the Administrative Staff of ICRANet;

further
developed the project of the Brazilian Science Data Center (BSDC)
(see Enclosure 2);

fostered
the operations of the Seats of ICRANet in Nice at Villa Ratti, in
Yerevan at the National Academy of Sciences (with the approval of
the corresponding Seat Agreement) and in Brazil at CBPF (see
Enclosure 3);

prepared
the proceedings of the meetings of 2014 and organized meetings and
PhD schools (see Enclosure 4);

updated
and signed cooperation agreements with Universities and Research
Centers (see Enclosure 5);

recruited
new students, organized the teaching programs and the Thesis works
of the International Relativistic Astrophysics Doctoral program
(IRAPPhD), jointly sponsored by ICRANet and ICRA (see Enclosure 6);

developed
the Erasmus Mundus program of the European Commission and recruited
additional nine students (see Enclosure 7);

implemented
the first cycle of the CAPESICRANet program for PhD students,
PostDoc Researchers and Visiting professors (see Enclosure 8);

followed
the project for the ICRANet Center at the Cassino da Urca in Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil (see Enclosure 9);

fostered
the lines of research and publication activities which are the
objects of the present report.
1)
The ICRANet Staff
In
the establishment of the ICRANet Scientific Staff we have followed
the previously adopted successful strategy:

To
appoint talented young scientists, as well as senior scientists who
have already contributed significantly to those areas which led to
the establishment of ICRANet.

To
create an adjunct Faculty with scientists who have made
internationally recognized contributions to the field of
relativistic astrophysics and whose research interests are closely
related to those of ICRANet. These scientists spend from one to six
months at the Pescara Center, thereby linking it with their home
institutions.

To
develop a program of Lecturers, Research Scientists and Visiting
Scientists, necessary to the research and academic activities of the
Center.
The purpose of
this strategy is to establish strong connections with the most
advanced international Research Centers. It also promotes the vital
connections between the ICRANet Member Institutions. The Curricula of
the ICRANet Staff are given in the Accompanying
Document “The
ICRANet Staff, Visiting Scientists and Graduate Students at the
Pescara Center”:
2)
The Collaboration with Brazil (see Enclos. 2)
The collaboration with Brazil
has been characterized by a successful program with graduate
students, researchers, postdocs, and senior visitor scientists both
in Europe and in Brazil (see also point 8 below), including the
initiative to establish the ICRANet Brazilian Science Data Center
(BSDC). Agreements have been signed between ICRANet and 15
Universities and Research Centers in Brazil (see point 5 below).
3)
Inauguration of the Seat in Nice at Villa Ratti, in Yerevan at the
National Academy of Sciences and in Brazil at CBPF (see Enclos. 3)
We
have completed the restructuring of Villa Ratti for the ICRANet Seat
in Nice, also by
creating an open lecture space in the park.
We been very pleased to receive the invitation by the Municipality of
Nice to open ICRANet activities in France, in order to maximize our
contacts with other European Countries and more generally with
Countries all over the world. We are planning the inauguration in the
first semester of 2016.
The appeal for the town of Nice and his surroundings, the existence
of a modern and efficient airport, the electronic backbones for
internet communications are all important elements which add to the
decision of the Nice Municipality to offer the historical Villa Ratti
as a seat for ICRANet in Nice. Since, an important finding of wall
paintings of circa 1750 occurred in the Villa and
they have all been restored.
The headquarter of the IRAPPhD program is
in Villa Ratti. We were
pleased to have, among
the first visitors of the opened ICRANet Seat in Villa Ratti, Prof.
Roy Kerr, the Nobel
Laureate Murray GellMann as well as Prof. Felix Aharonian, Prof.
Thibault Damour and Prof. Tom Kibble. We have also started the
activities of the ICRANet Seat in Armenia, at the Headquarter of the
National Academy of Sciences in Yerevan and at the Byurakan
Observatory. The seat
agreement has been signed
by the Director of ICRANet,
Prof. Remo Ruffini, and by the Ambassador of Armenia in Rome, H.E.
Sargis Gazharyan, on February 13^{th},
2015 and has been approved
by the Parliament of
Armenia and entered in
force on November 24^{th},
2015.
We
have also started the ICRANet Seat in Rio de Janeiro at CBPF and
possibly expanding at the Cassino
da
Urca.
4)
International Meetings (see Enclos. 4)
We have completed
the proceedings of:

100^{th}
Anniversary of the Birth of Zel’dovich, Minsk, Belarus, March
10 – 14, 2014 (Proceedings on Astronomy Report, 2015, Volume 59,
issues 6 and 7).

XIII Marcel Grossmann
Meeting, Stockholm, Sweden July 17, 2012 (proceedings edited by
R.T. Jantzen, K. Rosquist, R. Ruffini, World Scientific, Singapore,
2015).
We
have also organized the following meetings:

2^{nd}
Cesar Lattes Meeting, Brazil, April 13 – 22, 2015 (proceedings
in press by American Institute of Physics).

4^{th}
GalileoXu GuangQi Meeting, Beijing, China, May 4 – 8, 2015
(proceedings published in a special issue of the International
Journal of Modern Physics A, Volume: 30, Number: 28 and 29, 20
October 2015)

XIV
Marcel Grossmann Meeting,
Rome,
Italy,
July
12
–
18,
2015.

14^{th}
ItalianKorean Symposium, Pescara, Italy, July 20 – 24, 2015.

1^{st}
ColombiaICRANet Julio Garavito Armero Meeting,
Bugaramanga – Bogotá, Colombia, November 23 – 27, 2015.

1^{st}
Sandoval Vallarta Caribbean Meeting, Mexico City, Mexico,
December 1 – 5, 2015.
5)
Scientific Agreements (see Enclos. 5)
The
following Agreements have been signed, updated and renewed in 2015 by
the Director (see Fig. 1):

AlFarabi
Kazakh National University
(Kazakhstan),

ASI
(Italian Space Agency, Italy),

BSU
(Belarusian State University, Belarus),

CAPES
(Brazilian Fed. Agency for Support and Evaluation of Grad.
Education),

CBPF
(Brazil),

State
Government of Ceará (Brazil),

CNR
(National Research Council, Italy)

ENEA
(National Agency for new technologies, energy and the economic
sustainable development, Italy),

FAPERJ
(Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil),

GARR
(Italy),

ICTP
(The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics,
Italy),

IFCE
(Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará,
Brasil),

IHEP
(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
China),

IHES
(Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, France),

INFN
(National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy),

INPE
(Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brasil),

ITA
(Instituto Tecnológico
de Aeronáutica,
Brazil),

LeCosPa
(Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taiwan),

NASB
(National Academy of Sciences, Belarus),

NAS
RA (National Academy of Science, Armenia),

Nice
University Sophia Antipolis (France),

Pescara
University “D’Annunzio” (Italy),

SCSA
(State Committee of Science of Armenia),

UAM
(Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, México),

UERJ
(Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil),

UFF
(Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil),

UFPB
(Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil),

UFPE
(Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil),

UFRGS
(Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil),

UFSC
(Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil),

UIS
(Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia),

UNAM
(Universidad Nacional Autonoma De Mexico),

UnB
(Universidade de Brasília, Brazil),

UNIFEI
(Universidade Federal de Itajubà, Brazil),

University
of Rome “Sapienza” (Italy),

UNS
(Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina).
These
collaborations are crucial in order to give ICRANet scientists the
possibility to give courses and lectures in the Universities and,
vice versa, to provide to the Faculty of such Universities the
opportunity to spend research periods in ICRANet institutions.
6)
The International Relativistic Astrophysics Ph.D. (IRAPPhD) program
(see Enclos. 6)
One
of the major success of ICRANet has been to participate in the
International competition of the Erasmus Mundus Ph.D. program and the
starting of this program from the 2010 (see Fig. 2). The
participating institutions are:

AEI
– Albert Einstein Institute – Potsdam (Germany)

Bremen
University (Germany)

Carl
von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg (Germany)

CBPF
– Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (Brazil)

Ferrara
University (Italy)

Indian
centre for space physics (India)

INPE
(Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brasil)

Institut
Hautes Etudes Scientifiques – IHES (France)

Inst.
of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Science –
IHEPCAS, China

MaxPlanckInstitut
für Radioastronomie –
MPIfR (Germany)

Nice
University Sophia Antipolis (France)

Observatory
of the Côte d'Azur (France)

Rome
University – “Sapienza” (Italy)

Savoie
University (France)

Shanghai
Astronomical Observatory (China)

Stockholm
University (Sweden)

Tartu
Observatory (Estonia)
The
IRAP PHD program intends to create conditions for high level
education in Astrophysics mainly in Europe to create a new generation
of leading scientists in the region. No single university in Europe
today has the expertise required to attain this ambitious goal by
itself. For this reason we have identified universities which offers
a very large complementarity expertise. The students admitted and
currently following courses and doing research in such a program are
given in the following:
Third
Cycle 200407
 Chiappinelli Anna France
 Cianfrani
Francesco Italy
 Guida
Roberto Italy
 Rotondo
Michael Italy
 Vereshchagin
Gregory Belarus
 Yegoryan
Gegham Armenia
Fourth
Cycle 200508
 Battisti Marco Valerio Italy
 Dainotti
Maria.Giovanna Italy
 Khachatryan
Harutyun Armenia
 Lecian
Orchidea Maria Italy
 Pizzi
Marco Italy
 Pompi
Francesca Italy
Fifth
Cycle 200609
 Caito Letizia Italy
 De
Barros Gustavo, Brasil
 Minazzoli
Olivier, Switzerland
 Patricelli
Barbara, Italy
 Rangel
Lemos Luis Juracy, Brasil
 Rueda
Hernandez Jorge Armando Colombia
Sixth
Cycle 20072010
 Ferroni Valerio Italy
 Izzo
Luca Italy
 Kanaan
Chadia Lebanon
 Pugliese
Daniela Italy
 Siutsou
Ivan Belarus
 Sigismondi
Costantino Italy
Seventh
Cycle 20082011
 Belvedere Riccardo Italy
 Ceccobello
Chiara Italy
 Ferrara
Walter Italy
 Ferrari
Francesca Italy
 Han
Wenbiao China
 Luongo
Orlando Italy
 Pandolfi
Stefania Italy
 Taj
Safia Pakistan
Eight
Cycle 20092012
 Boshkayev
Kuantay Kazakhstan
 Bravetti
Alessandro Italy
 Ejlli
Damian Albanian
 Fermani
Paolo Italian
 Haney
Maria German
 Menegoni
Eloisa Italy
 Sahakyan
Narek Armenia
 Saini
Sahil Indian
Ninth
Cycle 20102013 (including Erasmus Mundus call)
 Arguelles Carlos Argentina
 Benetti
Micol Italy
 Muccino Marco Italy
 Baranov
Andrey Russia
 Benedetti
Alberto Italian
 Dutta
Parikshit India
 Fleig
Philipp Germany
 Gruber
Christine Austria
 Liccardo
Vincenzo Italy
 Machado
De Oliveira Fraga Bernardo Brazil
 Martins
De Carvalho Sheyse Brazil
 Penacchioni
Ana Virginia Argentina
 Valsan
Vineeth India
Tenth
Cycle 20112014 (including Erasmus Mundus call)
Cáceres Uribe, Diego Leonardo Colombia
 Raponi, Andrea Italy
 Wang,
Yu China
 Begue, Damien France
 Dereli, Husne Turkey
 Gregoris, Daniele Italy
 Iyyani, Shabnam
Syamsunder India
 Pereira, Jonas
Pedro Brazil
 Pisani, Giovanni Italy
 Rakshit, Suvendu India
 Sversut Arsioli,
Bruno Brazil
 Wu, Yuanbin China
Eleventh
Cycle 20122015 (including Erasmus Mundus call)
 Barbarino, Cristina Italy
 Bardho, Onelda Albania
 Cipolletta,
Federico Italy
 Dichiara, Simone Italy
 Enderli, Maxime France
 Filina,
Anastasia Russia
 Galstyan, Irina Armenia
 Gomes De Oliveira,
Fernanda Brazil
 Khorrami, Zeinab Iran
 Ludwig, Hendrik Germany
 Sawant, Disha India
 Strobel,
Eckhard Germany
Twelfth
Cycle 20132016 (including Erasmus Mundus call and CAPESICRANet call)
 Ahlén, Olof Sweden
 Becerra Bayona, Laura Colombia
 Brandt,
Carlos Henrique Brazil
 Carvalho,
Gabriel Brazil
 Gómez,
Gabriel Colombia
 Harutyunyan,
Vahagn Armenia
 Kovacevic, Milos Serbia
 Li, Liang China
 Lisakov, Sergey Russia
 Maiolino, Tais Brazil
 Pereira Lobo,
Iarley Brazil
 Sridhar,
Srivatsan India
 Stahl, Clément France
 Yang Xiaofeng China
Thirteenth
Cycle 20142017 (including Erasmus Mundus call and CAPESICRANet call)
 Aimuratov, Yerlan Kazakhstan
 Chang, YuLing Taiwan
 Delgado,
Camilo Colombia
 Efremov,
Pavel Ukraine
 Gardai Collodel,
Lucas Brazil
 Karlica, Mile Croatia
 Krut, Andreas Germany
 Martinez Aviles,
Gerardo Mexico
 Moradi, Rahim Iran
 Otoniel da Silva,
Edson Brazil
 Silva de Araújo Sadovski,
Guilherme Brazil
 Ramos Cardoso,
Tatiana Brazil
 Rodriguez Ruiz, Jose
Fernando Colombia
Fourteenth Cycle
20152018
 AlSaud Naiyf Saud Saudi Arabia
 Almonacid Guerrero William
Alexander Colombia
 Gardai Collodel
Lucas Brazil/Hungary
 Gutierrez Saavedra Julian
Steven Colombia
 Isidoro dos Santos Júnior
Samuel Brazil
 Meira Lindolfo Brazil
 Melon Fuksman Julio David
Argentina
 Primorac Daria Croatia
 Silva de Araujo Sadovski
Guilherme Brazil
 Uribe Suárez Juan
David Colombia
 Vieira Lobato
Ronaldo Brazil
We
enclose the Posters of the IRAPPhD for all the above cycles.
7)
The Erasmus Mundus Ph.D. program (see Enclos. 7)
Each
student admitted to the Erasmus Mundus program of the IRAP Ph.D. is
part of a team inside one of the laboratories of the consortium. Each
year they have the opportunity to visit the other laboratories of the
consortium and enlighten themselves with new topics in the forefront
research from world leading experts. In this way the students come in
direct contact with some of the leading scientists in the world
working in General Relativity, Relativistic Astrophysics and in
Quantum Field Theory. In addition to the theoretical centers, we
associate experimental and observational centers. This will provide
an opportunity to the Ph.D students to obtain a complete education in
theoretical relativistic astrophysics and also an experience on how
to carry out a specific astrophysical mission.
All
the institutions participating in IRAP PhD have an extensive
experience in international collaborations including visiting
professors, postdoctoral researchers and training of Ph.D. students.
All of our partners have enrolled Ph.D. students inside their
laboratories in various aspects of astrophysics.
8)
CAPESICRANet Program (see Enclos. 8)
Following
the Memorandum of Understanding signed in 2012 with CAPES, we started
the CAPESICRANet Program on Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology
to promote the Collaboration between Brazilian and European
scientists with five major actions: 1) Fellowships for Brazilian
graduate students in the IRAPPhD program; 2) Senior European
scientists visiting Brazil for up to 3 months per year for three
years; 3) Senior Brazilian scientists visiting ICRANet seats in Asia
and Europe for up to 5 months in a year; 4) Postdoctoral Fellowships
for International candidates in ICRANet seats,
Scientific Institutions associated to ICRANet, and Institutions with
scientists associated to ICRANet, both in Europe and Brazil; 5)
Organization of workshops and outreach programs. The
first cycle
of the program started in September 2013, and on
August 30^{th},
2014
there
was the deadline
for the call
for the second cycle of the program.
Since
September 18^{th},
2014,
the CAPESICRANet program has been suspended. ICRANet has
presented
the candidatures for the third
cycle of the above mentioned five actions, having received all the
acceptances from the corresponding host institutions, and is looking
for CAPES scrutiny.
9)
Project for the ICRANet Center at Cassino da Urca (see Enclos. 9)
We
have followed the architectural project for the ICRANet Center at the
Cassino da Urca in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
10)
Lines of research
We
turn now to the research activity of ICRANet, which by Statute
addresses the developments of research in Astrophysics in the
theoretical framework of Albert Einstein’s theories of special and
general relativity within the limits of their observational and
experimental verifications. Thanks to an unprecedented developments
of observational techniques from the ground, from Space, and even in
underground experiments in astroparticle physics, we are today
capturing astrophysical signals from all over the universe never
before conceived and received in human history. The Einstein theory
of relativity for many years was relegated to the boundaries of
physics, and attracted mainly interest in the mathematics. Since 50
years it has become the authentic conceptual and theoretical
“backbone” of the exponentially growing field of relativistic
astrophysics in view of the very impressive information and data
arriving from all over our universe: in our galaxy, all the way to
the farthest objects observed at z = 8 and to the Big bang.
There
is a very well
recognized principle in
scientific research
that, granted the freedom of thinking and of performing observational
or experimental activities, only
through the complementary fulfillment of both these aspects, in a
collective effort, science progresses.
Such
a principle is
not confined to Relativistic Astrophysics: it generally applies to
all scientific activities. In
particular, any new idea should be supported
by
observational
and experimental evidence, prior to be presented as a credible
alternative
to already existing and tested theories. This
principle specially applies to the case of Maxwell theory of
electrodynamics and Einstein theories of special and general
relativity. They have become the best tested theories in science,
they
are still evolving,
and they
are
at the basis of the technological developments which make possible
our daily life. ICRANet
considers this principle at the very basis of its activities.
In the Reports of previous
years, as a testimonial of these developments, I enclosed the paper
“The Ergosphere and Dyadosphere of Black Holes” which has
appeared in “The Kerr spacetime”, edited by David L. Wiltshire,
Matt Visser and Susan M. Scott (Cambridge University Press, 2009). In
it, I traced the exciting developments, which started with the
understanding on the nuclear evolutions of stars, and had then led to
the discovery of neutron stars, and through the work of Riccardo
Giacconi and colleagues, to the first identification of a black hole
in our galaxy. I also enclosed the paper “Moments with Yakov
Borisovich Zeldovich” (appeared in the Proceedings of the
International Conference “The Sun, the Stars, the Universe, and
General Relativity” in honor of Ya.B. Zel’dovich's 95^{th}
Anniversary, Editors R. Ruffini and G.V. Vereshchagin, AIP Conference
Proceedings, Vol. 1205 (2010) p. 110), recalling some of the crucial
moments in the developments of relativistic astrophysics in Soviet
Union around the historical figure of Ya.B. Zel’dovich. It is also
appropriate to mention that ICRANet
organized
an International conference in honor of Ya. B. Zel’dovich 100^{th}
Anniversary in Minsk (Belaurs) on March 1014, 2014. I
hereby enclose a
brochure on the ICRANet activities which has been distributed to all
the participants of the MGXIV meeting in Rome in July 2015 (see
Enclosure 10).
In
the previous years Reports I recalled the
growth of scientific research from the initial one (see
Fig. 3), which was
based on three major contributions:

The
knowledge made possible by general relativity and especially by
the Kerr solution and its electrodynamical generalization in the
KerrNewman black hole (see e.g. the recent development of the
dyadotorus concept, Fig. 4).

The
great knowledge gained in relativistic quantum field theories
originating from particle accelerators, colliders and nuclear
reactors from laboratories distributed worldwide (see e.g. the
recent developments at CERN, Fig. 5).

The
splendid facilities orbiting in space, from the Chandra to the
XMM, to the Swift and Fermi
missions as well as many other satellites, the VLT and Keck
telescopes on the ground, as well as the radio telescope arrays
offer us the possibility, for the first time, of the observations
of the most transient and energetic sources in the universe: the
GammaRay Bursts (GRBs) (see e.g. the recent developments thanks
to additional scientific missions, Fig. 6).
Thanks to a fortunate number of
events and conceptual and scientific resonances, a marked evolution
of these topics had occurred. From these premises, new fields of
research had sprouted up at the ICRANet Center in Pescara, at ICRA in
Rome and at the other Member Institutions, especially thanks to the
development of the IRAPPhD program (see point 7 above) and to the
many scientists and visitors participating in the ICRANet programs
(see Figs. 7, 8, 9a and 9b).
I turn now to a summary of the
current activities presented in full details in Volume 2 and Volume
3.
Gammarays and Neutrinos
from Cosmic Accelerators (Page 1).
Particularly important is this
report, which summarizes the activities traditionally carried on by
the ICRANet Armenian Scientists in the MAGIC and HESS collaborations,
which acquire a particular relevance in view of the recent opening of
the ICRANet Seat at the National Academy of Science in Armenia. This
topic was motivated by Prof. Felix Aharonian joining ICRANet as
representative of Armenia in the Scientific Committee and by his
appointment as Adjunct Professor of ICRANet on the Benjamin
Jegischewitsch Markarjan Chair. Many of the observational work done
by Prof. Aharonian are crucial for the theoretical understanding of
the ultra high energy sources. Prof. Aharonian started also his
collaboration with the IRAP PhD program where he is following the
thesis of graduate students as thesis advisor. The evolution and
future prospects on the analysis of the highenergy gammaray
emission are presented in this report by Prof. Aharonian and Dr.
Sahakyan.
Papers published in 2015
include:

Kelner, S., Prosekin, A.
and Aharonian, F. "SynchroCurvature Radiation of Charged
Particles in the Strong Curved Magnetic Fields", The
Astronomical Journal, Volume 149, Issue 1, article id. 33, 21 pp.,
2015.

Bordas, P., Yang, R.,
Kafexhiu, E. and Aharonian, F. "Detection of Persistent
GammaRay Emission Toward SS433/W50", The Astrophysical Journal
Letters, Volume 807, Issue 1, article id. L8, 5 pp., 2015.

Yang, Ruizhi, Jones, D.
and Aharonian, F. "FermiLAT observations of the Sagittarius B
complex", Astronomy \& Astrophysics, Volume 580, id.A90, 7
pp. 2015.

Sahakyan, N., Zargaryan, D.
and Baghmanyan, V. "On the gammaray emission from 3C 120",
Astronomy \& Astrophysics, Volume 574, id.A88, 5 pp., 2015.

Sahakyan, N., Yang, R.,
Rieger, F., Aharonian, F. and de OnaWilhelmi, E. "High Energy
Gamma Rays from Centaurus a" Proceedings of the MG13 Meeting on
General Relativity ISBN 9789814623995, pp. 10281030, 2015.
Exact solutions of
Einstein and EinsteinMaxwell equations (Page 53)
The topic of BKL cosmology
is one of the most important and classical contributions of Einstein
theory to the study of cosmology, fostered at ICRANetPescara by
Prof. V. Belinski. This classic work, developed by Belinski,
Kalatnikov and Lifshitz, has already been reviewed in all the major
treaties on general relativity, but only recently a new insight has
come from the impressive discoveries made by Thibault Damour at the
IHES in Paris, by Prof. Mark Henneaux at the University of Bruxelles,
and by Herman Nicolai at the Albert Einstein Institute in Potsdam, on
the way to generalize the BKL theory of cosmological singularity to
the string theories. The new results can be of essential importance
for understanding the problem of cosmological singularity and of the
physics around a black hole, as well as for the identification of
hidden internal symmetries in fundamental physics. Prof. Belinski has
already finished his part of a new book on “Cosmological
singularities” which will be written in coauthorship with Prof.
Damour. The book has planned to be published by Cambridge University
Press. A shortened and adapted version of this book has already been
presented in the AIP conference proceedings of XIV Brazilian School
of Cosmology and Gravitation (V. Belinski “On the Singularity
Phenomenon in Cosmology”, in: Chapter 2, Cosmology and Gravitation:
XIV Brazilian School of Cosmology and Gravitation, Cambridge
Scientific Publishers, 2011). Three graduate students of the IRAP PhD
program are actually working on this topic for their theses with
Profs. Hagen Kleinert and Hermann Nicolai in Berlin. Among the
completely new results achieved during the last year, first it should
be mentioned the exact description of the quantum dynamics of a
supersymmetric version of the Bianchi IX cosmological model and
identification the basic role of the KacMoody algebra in the
structure of the quantum Hamiltonian (T. Damour et al.). The second
result is the proof of the existence of the general cosmological
solution with the Friedman initial singularity if the influence of
the dissipative processes near singularity will be taken into account
in the framework of the IsraelStewart theory (V. Belinski).
On a different topic, namely
the
solitonic equations of GR,
an
alternative derivation of the Kerr solution had been advanced in a
classical paper of 1978 by V. Belinski and V. Zakharov using inverse
scattering method. The generalization of this method to the presence
of electromagnetic field was constructed in 1980 by G. Alekseev and
KerrNewman solution has been derived by him in analogous way at the
same year. Prof. V. Belinski is now an ICRANet Faculty Member and has
further developed this research with the effective collaboration of
Prof. G. Alekseev which is an ICRANet Lecturer. During the last years
the solitonic solutions of GR has received new interest in respect of
the exact solutions of Einstein and EinsteinMaxwell equations:
a) The old problem how to generate the exact stationary axisymmetric
solutions corresponding to the charged masses with horizons in the
framework of Inverse Scattering Method (ISM) was investigated. It was
shown that applicability of the ISM in presence of electromagnetic
field is not restricted only to the cases with naked singularities
(as it has been erroneously stated by some authors). In fact
solutions of EinsteinMaxwell equations with horizon also follows
from ISM and they are of the same solitonic character. The
mathematical procedure of analytical continuations of the
nakedsingularity solitonic solutions in the space of their
parameters which procedure results in solitonic solutions with
horizon has been described (G. Alekseev and V. Belinski “Soliton
Nature of Equilibrium State of Two Charged Masses in General
Relativity”, IJMPCS, 12, 1018, 2012); b) It was found the new way
of derivation of the Kerr solution by adding to the Schwarzchild
black hole the solitonic vortex made from the pure gravitational
field. With this method, one can figure out how rotational energy can
contribute to the mass of the resulting Kerr black hole. Also the
relation of the HansonRegge type between the mass and angular
momentum of a Kerr black hole has been established and its connection
with the ChristodoulouRuffini concept of irreducible mass was
analyzed (V. Belinski and H. W. Lee “Kerr rotation as solitonic
whirl around Schwarzschild black hole”, Nuovo Cimento, submitted,
2011). During the last year all these constructions was generalized
also for the electrically charged black holes. It was shown how one
can derive the KerrNewman solution by adding a solitonic vortex to
the ReissnerNordstrom black hole.
Papers published in 2015
include:

V. A. Belinski
"Supergravitational Solitons", Phys. Rev., D91, 125041
(2015).

G.A. Alekseev, “Travelling
waves in expanding spatially homogeneous spacetimes”, Class.
Quantum Grav. 32, 075009 (2015).

G.A. Alekseev "Construction
of solution for "geodesic" motion of a Schwarzschild black
hole along a magnetic field in AdS2xS2 spacetime”, Submitted to
the Proceedings of MGXIV (2015).

G.A. Alekseev, "Collision
of arbitrary strong gravitational and electromagnetic waves in the
expanding universe”, arXiv:1511.03335, [grqc], (2015).

V. Belinski "The
generic solution with isotropic Big Bang", Astronomy Reports
(Springer), 59, 425 (2015).

H. Quevedo, A. Sanchez, A.
Vazquez "Relativistic like structure of classical
thermodynamics", Gen. Rel. Grav., 47, 36 (2015).

H. Quevedo, S. Toktarbay
"Generating static perfect fluid solutions of Einstein's
equations", Journ. Math. Phys., 56, 052502 (2015).

H. Quevedo, D. Pugliese
"The ergoregion in the Kerr spacetime: properties of the
equatorial circular motion", Europ. Phys. Journ., 75, 234
(2015).

H. Quevedo, M. N. Quevedo,
A. Sanchez "Thermodynamics and geometrothermodynamics of
BornInfeld black holes with cosmological constant", IJMP D,
24, 1550092 (2015).

A. Bravetti, C.S.
LopezMonsalvo, H. Quevedo "Maximally symmetric spacetimes
emerging from thermodynamic fluctuations", arXiv:1503.08358
[grqc] (March 2015).

O. Luongo, H. Quevedo
"Selfaccelerated universe induced by repulsive effects as an
alternative to dark energy and modified gravities",
arXiv:1507.06446 [grqc] (July 2015).

K. Boshkayev, E. Gasperin,
A.C. GutierrezPineres, H. Quevedo, S. Toktarbay "Motion of
test particles in the field of a naked singularity",
arXiv:1509.03827 [grqc] (September 2015).

K. Boshkayev, H. Quevedo,
M. Abutalip, Z. Kalymova, S. Suleymanova "Geodesics in the
field of a rotating deformed gravitational source",
arXiv:1510.02016 [grqc] (October 2015).

K. Boshkayev, H. Quevedo,
S. Toktarbay, B. Zhami "On the equivalence of approximate
stationary axially symmetric solutions of Einstein field equations",
arXiv:1510.02035 [grqc] (October 2015).

M. Abishev, K. Boshkayev,
H. Quevedo, S. Toktarbay "Accretion disks around a mass with
quadrupole", arXiv:1510.03696 [grqc] (October 2015).

M. Abishev, K. Boshkayev,
H. Quevedo, S. Toktarbay "A perfect fluid spacetime for a
slightly deformed mass", arXiv:1510.03699 [grqc] (October
2015).

M. Abishev, H. Quevedo, S.
Toktarbay, B. Zhami "Orbital stability of the restricted three
body problem in general relativity", arXiv:1510.03703 [grqc]
(October 2015).

T. Damour, Ph. Spindel
"Minisuperspace quantum supersymmetric cosmology and its hidden
hyperbolic KacMoody structures", arXiv:1511.05821 [grqc]
(November 2015).

D. Bini, T. Damour, A.
Geralico "Confirming and improving postNewtonian and
effectiveonebody results from selfforce computations along
eccentric orbits around a Schwarzschild black hole",
arXiv:1511.04533 [grqc] (November 2015).

D. Bini, T. Damour, A.
Geralico "Spindependent twobody interactions from
gravitational selfforce computations", arXiv:1510.06230
[grqc] (2015).

S. Balmelli, T. Damour "A
new effective onebody Hamiltonian with nexttoleading order
spinspin coupling", arXiv:1509.08135 [grqc] (2015).

A. Nagar, T. Damour, C.
Reisswig, D. Pollney "Energetics and phasing of nonprecessing
spinning coalescing black hole binaries", arXiv:1506.08457
[grqc] (June 2015).

D. Bini, T.Damour "Analytic
determination of highorder postNewtonian selfforce contributions
to gravitational spin precession", Phys.Rev. D\textbf{91},
064064 (2015).

T. Damour, P. Jaranowski,
G. Sch\"{a}fer "Fourth postNewtonian effective onebody
dynamics", Phys. Rev. D 91, 084024 (2015).

D. Bini, T. Damour
"Detweiler's gaugeinvariant redshift variable: Analytic
determination of the nine and nineandahalf postNewtonian
selfforce contributions", Phys. Rev. D, 91, 064050 (2015).

S. Bernuzzi, A. Nagar, T.
Dietrich, T. Damour "Modeling the Dynamics of Tidally
Interacting Binary Neutron Stars up to the Merger", Phys. Rev.
Lett., 114, 161103 (2015).

T. Damour "1974: the
discovery of the first binary pulsar", Class.Quant.Grav. 32,
124009 (2015).
GammaRay Bursts (Page 69)
The research on GRBs in ICRANet
is wide and has been participated by many Members of the Faculty and
of the Adjunct Faculty, as well as by many Lecturers, Research
Scientists and graduate students. Traditionally, GRBs are divided
into two classes, “short” GRBs and “long” GRBs, arranged in a
bimodal distribution with a separation around a duration of 2s. In
2001 we proposed that both short and long GRBs are created by the
same process of gravitational collapse to a black hole. The energy
source is the e^{+}e^{}
plasma created in the process of the black hole formation. The two
parameters characterizing the GRB are the total energy E_{e±}^{tot}
of such an e^{+}e^{}
plasma and its baryon loading B
defined as B=M_{B}c^{2}/E_{e±}^{tot},
where M_{B} is the mass of the baryon loading. The e^{+}e^{}
plasma evolves as a selfaccelerating optically thick fireshell up to
when it become transparent, hence we refer to our theoretical model
as the “fireshell model”. We have defined a “canonical GRB”
light curve with two sharply different components. The first one is
the ProperGRB (PGRB), which is emitted when the optically thick
fireshell becomes transparent and consequently has a very well
defined time scale determined by the transparency condition. The
second component is the emission due to the collision between the
accelerated baryonic matter and the CircumBurst Medium (CBM). This
comprises what is usually called the “afterglow”. The relative
energetics of the two components is a function of B. For B < 10^{5}
the GRB is “PGRB dominated”, since the PGRB is energetically
dominant over the second component. The contrary is true for B larger
than such a critical value. Since 2001 it has been a major point of
our theoretical model that the long GRBs are simply identified with
the peak of this second component. In the last years the
comprehension of the GRB phenomenon has remarkably increased, thanks
to the introduction of the IGC paradigm. The long GRBs associated
with Supernovae, which were traditionally considered as an overall
single event, are now interpreted as a set of four different
Episodes, each one characterized by its own spectral, luminosity and
time evolution and corresponding to four different astrophysical
processes:
) The “Episode 1”
corresponds to the emission from the onset of a Supernova (SN), in a
close binary system with a companion neutron star (NS). The initial
SN expansion, at nonrelativistic velocities, induces a strong matter
accretion onto the NS, which reaches the critical mass and then
collapses to a black hole (BH). The observed hard Xray emission is
composed of a thermal spectrum plus a powerlaw component, both
evolving in time.
) The “Episode 2”,
corresponding to the observations of the GRB, is related to the
collapse of the NS into a BH.
) The “Episode 3”, in soft
Xrays, occurs when the prompt emission from the GRB fades away and
it emerges an additional component we discovered in the Swift XRT
data. It has been shown that this component, in energetic (E_{iso}
> 10^{52} erg) GRBsSNe, when referred to the restframe
of the source, follows a standard behavior of the light curve
evolution. This emission encompasses the SN shock break out and the
expanding SN ejecta, and gives origin to an authentic “cosmic
candle”.
) The “Episode 4” is
represented by the observations of the optical emission of the SN,
which has been observed in some IGC sources, with redshift z <
0.9.
Major progresses have been
accomplished this years in the following aspects (see Figs. 1017):

In studying the “nesting”
in the late xray light curves of “Binary Driven Hypernovae”
(BdHNe), the progenitors of GRBs with an associated supernova.

In reviewing old BATSE data
finding the same characteristic features of BdHN systems.

In dividing GRBs in two
different families, based on their energetics, thanks to the
results of the analysis of GRB 130427A, associated with SN 2013cq,
within the BdHN scenario.

In applying this new
classification in two different families, based on the energetics,
also to short GRBs.

In studying the different
configurations of the binary progenitor system within the IGC
paradigm.
Papers published in 2015
include:

R. Ruffini, Y. Wang, M.
Kovacevic, C.L. Bianco, M. Enderli, M. Muccino, A.V. Penacchioni,
G.B. Pisani, J. Rueda; ``GRB 130427A and SN 2013cq: A
Multiwavelength Analysis of An Induced Gravitational Collapse
Event''; The Astrophysical Journal, 798, 10 (2015).

M. Muccino, R. Ruffini,
C.L. Bianco, M. Enderli, M. Kovacevic, L. Izzo, A.V. Penacchioni,
G.B. Pisani, J.A. Rueda, Y. Wang; ``On binary driven hypernovae and
their nested late Xray emission''; Astronomy Reports, 59, 581
(2015).

R. Ruffini, J.A. Rueda, C.
Barbarino, C. L. Bianco, H. Dereli, M. Enderli, L. Izzo, M. Muccino,
A.V. Penacchioni, G.B. Pisani, Y. Wang; ``Induced Gravitational
Collapse in the BATSE era: the case of GRB 970828''; Astronomy
Reports, 59, 626 (2015).

Y. Wang, R. Ruffini, M.
Kovacevic, C.L. Bianco, M. Enderli, M. Muccino, A.V. Penacchioni,
G.B. Pisani, J.A. Rueda; ``Predicting supernova associated to
gammaray burst 130427a''; Astronomy Reports, 59, 667 (2015).

R. Ruffini, M. Muccino, M.
Kovacevic, F.G. Oliveira, J.A. Rueda, C.L. Bianco, M. Enderli, A.V.
Penacchioni, G.B. Pisani, Y. Wang, E. Zaninoni; ``GRB 140619B: a
short GRB from a binary neutron star merger leading to black hole
formation''; The Astrophysical Journal, 808, 190 (2015).

R. Ruffini, Y. Aimuratov,
C.L. Bianco, M. Enderli, M. Kovacevic, R. Moradi, M. Muccino, A.V.
Penacchioni, G.B. Pisani, J.A. Rueda, Y. Wang; ``Induced
gravitational collapse in FeCO CoreNeutron star binaries and
Neutron starNeutron star binary mergers''; International Journal of
Modern Physics A, 30, 1545023 (2015).

R. Ruffini; ``Black Holes,
Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts''; in Proceedings of the Thirteenth
Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, Stockholm, Sweden,
July 2012, R.T. Jantzen, K. Rosquist, R. Ruffini, Editors; World
Scientific, (Singapore, 2015).

M. Muccino, R. Ruffini,
C.L. Bianco, L. Izzo, A.V. Penacchioni, G.B. Pisani; ``GRB 090227B:
The missing link between the genuine short and long GRBs''; in
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General
Relativity, Stockholm, Sweden, July 2012, R.T. Jantzen, K. Rosquist,
R. Ruffini, Editors; World Scientific, (Singapore, 2015).

A.V. Penacchioni, R.
Ruffini, C.L. Bianco, L. Izzo, M. Muccino, G.B. Pisani, J.A. Rueda;
``The family of the Induced Gravitational Collapse scenario: The
case of GRB 110709B''; in Proceedings of the Thirteenth Marcel
Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, Stockholm, Sweden, July
2012, R.T. Jantzen, K. Rosquist, R. Ruffini, Editors; World
Scientific, (Singapore, 2015).

A.V. Penacchioni, R.
Ruffini, C.L. Bianco, L. Izzo, M. Muccino, G.B. Pisani; ``GRB
111228, analysis within the Induced Gravitational Collapse scenario
and association with a supernova''; in Proceedings of the Thirteenth
Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, Stockholm, Sweden,
July 2012, R.T. Jantzen, K. Rosquist, R. Ruffini, Editors; World
Scientific, (Singapore, 2015).

G.B. Pisani, L. Izzo, R.
Ruffini, C.L. Bianco, M. Muccino, A.V. Penacchioni, J.A. Rueda, Y.
Wang; ``On a novel distance indicator for GammaRay Bursts
associated with supernovae''; in Proceedings of the Thirteenth
Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, Stockholm, Sweden,
July 2012, R.T. Jantzen, K. Rosquist, R. Ruffini, Editors; World
Scientific, (Singapore, 2015).

M. Muccino, R. Ruffini,
C.L. Bianco, L. Izzo, A.V. Penacchioni, G.B. Pisani; ``GRB 090510,
explosion of a GRB in the highest circumburst medium even inferred:
a disguised short GRB''; in Proceedings of the Thirteenth Marcel
Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, Stockholm, Sweden, July
2012, R.T. Jantzen, K. Rosquist, R. Ruffini, Editors; World
Scientific, (Singapore, 2015).

L. Izzo, G.B. Pisani, M.
Muccino, R. Ruffini, C.L. Bianco, M. Enderli, Y. Wang; ``Hints for a
physically based GRB distance indicator''; in Proceedings of the
Thirteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity,
Stockholm, Sweden, July 2012, R.T. Jantzen, K. Rosquist, R. Ruffini,
Editors; World Scientific, (Singapore, 2015).
Relativistic effects in
Physics and Astrophysics (Page 237)
In this report it is studied
the distribution of the GRB bolometric luminosity over the EQTSs,
with special attention to the prompt emission phase. We analyze as
well the temporal evolution of the EQTS apparent size in the sky. We
use the analytic solutions of the equations of motion of the
fireshell and the corresponding analytic expressions of the EQTSs
which have been presented in recent works and which are valid for
both the fully radiative and the adiabatic dynamics. We find the
novel result that at the beginning of the prompt emission the most
luminous regions of the EQTSs are the ones closest to the line of
sight. On the contrary, in the late prompt emission and in the early
afterglow phases the most luminous EQTS regions are the ones closest
to the boundary of the visible region (see Fig. 18). We find as well
an expression for the apparent radius of the EQTS in the sky, valid
in both the fully radiative and the adiabatic regimes. Such
considerations are essential for the theoretical interpretation of
the prompt emission phase of GRBs.
Big data analysis and
Cosmology with Astrophysical Transients (Page 307)
Particularly interesting, and
connected to the above topics, is also the project on big data
analysis. The current situation in astrophysics allows to use large
archival astrophysical data from infrared, optical and very high
energetic radiations. This new situation allows to study a single
source in a multiwavelength context, and permits to obtain more
information on the physical mechanisms behind the observed radiation.
Recently we have started and developed a program involving the use of
already existing software packages for space data reduction, as
Swift, Fermi, XMM and HST, and onground facilities as optical
telescopes at ESO and Canary Island. New collaborations started,
about the study of optical transients, as well for the analysis in
realtime of highenergy sources as GRBs.
Papers published in 2015
include:

Izzo, L.; Muccino, M.;
Zaninoni, E.; Amati, L.; Della Valle, M.; “New measurements of W_{m}
from gammaray bursts”, (2015) A&A, 582, 115;

Izzo, L.; Della Valle, M.;
Mason, E.; Matteucci, F.; Romano, D.; Pasquini, L.; Vanzi, L.;
Jordan, A.; Fernandez, J. M.; Bluhm, P.; Brahm, R.; Espinoza, N.;
Williams, R.; “Early Optical Spectra of Nova V1369 Cen Show the
Presence of Lithium”, (2015) ApJL, 808, 1;
Cosmology and Large Scale
Structures (Page 323)
This topic follows from the
extensive work performed at the University of Arizona in Tucson by
Prof. Fang LiZhi, and constitutes an important bridge of scientific
collaboration with China initiated by Fang. The leading person who is
planning to collaborate is Prof. Xiaohui Fan, regent professor at
Tucson and representative of Tucson in the ICRANet Steering
Committee. We are also capitalizing on the collaboration between Los
Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) and Tucson University on High
Performance Computing carried on by Chris Fryer, who is adjunct
Professor in ICRANet (see Fig. 18b).
Theoretical
Astroparticle Physics (Page 327)
Astroparticle physics is a new
field of research emerging at the intersection of particle physics,
astrophysics and cosmology. We focused on several topics with three
major directions of research: a) electronpositron plasma, b) thermal
emission from relativistic plasma and GRBs, c) neutrinos and large
scale structure formation in cosmology, d) selfgravitating systems
as Dark Matter in galaxies.
Electronpositron plasma
appear relevant for GRBs and also for the Early Universe, in
laboratory experiments with ultraintense lasers, etc. We
study both nonequilibrium effects such as thermalization and
associated timescales, as well as dynamical effects such as
accelerated expansion in the optically thick regime. Relativistic
numerical codes are designed and widely implemented in this research.
The basic outcomes include: determination from the first principles
of relaxation timescales of optically thick electronpositron plasma
with baryonic loading in the wide range of plasma parameters;
conclusion that deviations from a simple "frozen radial profile"
in spatial distributions of energy and matter densities of expanding
electronpositron plasma with baryonic loading are possible. The last
conclusion imply in particular the possibility to recover the spatial
distribution of matter and energy in the process of collapse of a GRB
progenitor to a black hole. We
examine quantum corrections to the collision integrals and determine
timescales of relaxation towards thermal equilibrium for high
temperature electronpositronphoton plasma. (A.G. Aksenov, R.
Ruffini. I.A. Siutsou and G.V. Vereshchagin, “Bose enhancement and
Pauli blocking in the pair plasma”, in preparation).
We study the thermal
emission from relativistic plasma and GRBs,
which is relevant for understanding GRB emission when plasma in
relativistic produces photospheric emission. In particular, we
focused on several topics including: transparency of an
instantaneously created electronpositronphoton plasma (D.
Begue and G.V. Vereshchagin, MNRAS, Vol. 439 (2014) 924);
thermal emission in early afterglow from the GRBSNR interaction (R.
Ruffini G. V. Vereshchagin Yu Wang, in preparation), and the
traditional topic of photospheric emission in ultrarelativistic
outflows (G.V. Vereshchagin, IJMPD 23 (2014) 1430003, and I.A.
Siutsou, R. Ruffini and G.V. Vereshchagin, New Astronomy 27
(2014) 30). We also discovered
an interesting effect of relativistic spotlight (I.A. Siutsou and
G.V. Vereshchagin, PLB 730 (2014) 190). The oral report on this topic
will be made by G.V. Vereshchagin.
In the
framework of cosmology
we show how the distribution of Dark Matter (DM) in galaxies can be
explained within a model based on a semidegenerate selfgravitating
system of fermions in General Relativity. The oral report on this
topic will be made by C. Argüelles
(see
Figs. 1923).
Papers published in 2015
include:

G.V. Vereshchagin,
"Relativistic Kinetic Theory with some Applications", in:
Cosmology and Gravitation: XVth Brazilian School of Cosmology and
Gravitation, eds. Mario Novello and Santiago E.Perez Bergliaffa,
Cambridge Scientific Publishers, 2015, pp 140.

A. G. Aksenov, R. Ruffini,
and G. V. Vereshchagin, “Radiative transfer in relativistic plasma
outflows and comptonization of photons near the photosphere”,
Astronomy Reports, Vol. 59, No. 6, (2015) pp. 418424.

G. V. Vereshchagin,
"Physics of NonDissipative Ultrarelativistic Photospheres",
in Proceedings of the MG13 Meeting on General Relativity, eds.
Rosquist et al., WSPC (2015) pp. 708728.

R. Ruffini, I.A. Siutsou
and G.V. Vereshchagin, "Photon Thick and Photon Thin
Relativistic Outflows and GRBs", in Proceedings of the MG13
Meeting on General Relativity, eds. Rosquist et al., WSPC (2015) pp.
17481750.

A.G. Aksenov, R. Ruffini
and G.V. Vereshchagin, "Radiative Transfer Near the Photosphere
of Mildly and Ultrarelativistic Outflows", in Proceedings of
the MG13 Meeting on General Relativity, eds. Rosquist et al., WSPC
(2015) pp. 17541756.

D. Bégué, I.A. Siutsou
and G.V. Vereshchagin, "On the Decoupling of Photons from
Relativistically Expanding Outflows", in Proceedings of the
MG13 Meeting on General Relativity, eds. Rosquist et al., WSPC
(2015) pp. 17601761.

R. Ruffini, G. V.
Vereshchagin and S.S. Xue, “Cosmic absorption of ultra high
energy particles”, submitted to Astrophys. Space Sci. (2015).

R. Ruffini G. V.
Vereshchagin Yu Wang, ”Thermal emission in the early afterglow of
GRBs from their interaction with supernova ejecta”, submitted to
A&A (2015).

I. A. Siutsou, A. G.
Aksenov and G. V. Vereshchagin, “On Thermalization of
ElectronPositronPhoton Plasma”, to appear in proceedings of the
Second César Lattes Meeting, AIP Conf. Proc. (2015).

R. Ruffini, C. R. Argüelles
and J. A. Rueda, "On the corehalo distribution of dark matter
in galaxies" MNRAS, 451 (2015) 622.

I. Siutsou, C. R. Argüelles
and R. Ruffini, "Dark matter massive fermions and Einasto
profiles in galactic halos", Astron. Rep. 59 No. 7 (2015) 656.

C. R. Argüelles
and R. Ruffini, "A regular and relativistic Einstein cluster
within the S2 orbit centered in SgrA*" The Thirteenth Marcel
Grossmann Meeting Book, Vol. B (2015) 1734.

B. M. O. Fraga, C. R.
Argüelles, R. Ruffini
and I. Siutsou, "Semidegenerate selfgravitating system of
fermion as Dark Matter on galaxies I: Universality laws", The
Thirteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting Book, Vol. B (2015) 1730.
Generalization of the
KerrNewman solution (Page 595)
The unsolved problem of a
physical solution in general relativity of an astrophysical object
which must be characterized necessarily by four parameters, mass,
charge, angular momentum and quadrupole moment, has also been debated
for years and it is yet not satisfactorily solved. The presence in
ICRANet of Prof. Quevedo as an Adjunct Professor has shown an
important result published by Bini, Geralico, Longo, Quevedo [Class.
Quant. Grav., 26 (2009), 225006]. This result has been obtained for
the special case of a MashhoonQuevedo solution characterized only by
mass, angular momentum and quadrupole moment. It has been shown that
indeed such a MashhoonQuevedo solution can be matched to an internal
solution solved in the postNewtonian approximation by Hartle and
Thorne for a rotating star.
The most important metrics in
general relativity is the KerrNewman solution which describes the
gravitational and electromagnetic fields of a rotating charged mass,
characterized by its mass M, charge Q and angular momentum L in
geometrical units. This solution characterizes the field of a black
hole. For astrophysical purposes, however, it is necessary to take
into account the effects due to the moment of inertia of the object.
To attack this problem, an exact solution of the EinsteinMaxwell
equations have been proposed by Mashhoon and Quevedo which posses an
infinite set of gravitational and electromagnetic multipole moments.
It is not clear, however, how this external solution to an
astrophysical object can be matched to a physical internal solution
corresponding to a physically acceptable rotating mass. Are here
reported current progresses in using an explicit solution of the
HartleThorne equation to an eternal solution with N independent
quadrupole moments. Equally important has been the result recently
obtained by Belvedere showing that a fast rotating model of neutron
star with global charge neutrality within the HartleThorne
approximation leads to an internal solution of the Kerr metric.
Papers published in 2015
include:

D. Pugliese and H. Quevedo,
“Equatorial circular orbits of neutral test particles in the
KerrNewman spacetime”, Eur. Phys. J. C, 75, 234 (2015).

Quevedo, Hernando; Sánchez,
Alberto; Vázquez, Alejandro, “Relativistic like structure of
classical thermodynamics”, General Relativity and Gravitation,
Volume 47, article id.36, 18 pp. (2015).

Quevedo, Hernando;
Toktarbay, Saken, “Generating static perfectfluid solutions of
Einstein's equations”, Journal of Mathematical Physics, Volume 56,
Issue 5, id.052502 (2015).

Quevedo, Hernando; Quevedo,
María N.; Sánchez, Alberto, “Thermodynamics and
geometrothermodynamics of BornInfeld black holes with cosmological
constant”, International Journal of Modern Physics D, Volume 24,
Issue 11, id. 1550092 (2015).

GutiérrezPiñeres,
Antonio C.; LopezMonsalvo, Cesar S.; Quevedo, Hernando,
“Variational thermodynamics of relativistic thin disks”, General
Relativity and Gravitation, Volume 47, article id. #144, 9 pp.
(2015)
Black Holes and Quasars
(Page 693)
This report refers to the
activity of Prof. Brian Punsly, who is actively participating within
ICRANet with the publication of his internationally recognized book
on “Black hole gravitohydromagnetics”, the first and second
edition (2010) being published with Springer. In addition, Prof.
Punsly have been interested in observational properties of quasars
such as broad line emission excess in radio loud quasars accentuated
for polar line of sight and excess narrow line widths of broad
emission lines in broad absorption line quasars, showing that this is
best explained by polar lines of sight.
Papers published in 2015
include:

Punsly, Brian; Marziani,
Paola., “The extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the kinetically
dominated quasar 3C 270.1”, MNRAS, 453, L16 (2015).

Punsly, Brian; Marziani,
Paola; Kharb, Preeti; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Vestergaard, Marianne,
“The Extreme Ultraviolet Deficit: Jet Connection in the Quasar
1442+101”, ApJ, 812, 79 (2015).

Punsly, B., “Evidence of
the Dynamics of Relativistic Jet Launching in Quasars”, ApJ, 806,
47 (2015).
Cosmology group of Tartu
Observatory (Page 699)
Prof. Einasto has been
collaborating in the previous years intensively within ICRANet about
the large scale structure of the Universe and its possible fractal
structure. With Prof. Einasto there is also the collaboration of
Prof. G. Hutsi. Prof. Einasto is an Adjunct Professor of ICRANet and
an active member of the Faculty of the IRAP PhD. Prof. Einasto has
completed a book reviewing the status of the dark matter and the
large scale structure of the universe published by World Scientific
as Volume 14^{th} in the Advanced Series in Astrophysics and
Cosmology Series edited by L.Z. Fang and R. Ruffini. This book covers
the material of the lectures delivered in the IRAP PhD program as
well as an historical perspective between the different approaches to
the study of the dark matter content of the universe in the west and
in the former Soviet union.
Papers published in 2015
include:

Gramann, Mirt; Einasto,
Maret; Heinämäki, Pekka; Teerikorpi, Pekka; Saar, Enn; Nurmi,
Pasi; Einasto, Jaan, “Characteristic density contrasts in the
evolution of superclusters. The case of A2142 supercluster”,
Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 581, id.A135, 6 pp. (2015).

Einasto, Maret; Gramann,
Mirt; Saar, Enn; Liivamägi, Lauri Juhan; Tempel, Elmo; Nevalainen,
Jukka; Heinämäki, Pekka; Park, Changbom; Einasto, Jaan, “Unusual
A2142 supercluster with a collapsing core: distribution of light and
mass”, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 580, id.A69, 13 pp.
(2015).

Teerikorpi, P.; Heinämäki,
P.; Nurmi, P.; Chernin, A. D.; Einasto, M.; Valtonen, M.; Byrd, G.,
“A graph of dark energy significance on different spatial and mass
scales”, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 577, id.A144, 4 pp.
(2015).
The
electronpositron pairs in physics and astrophysics (Page 705)
This
problem “The
electronpositron pairs in physics and astrophysics: from heavy
nuclei to black holes”
has been the subject of a physics reports of more than 500
references, which is inserted on
page 929,
by Ruffini, Vereshchagin and Xue. There, all the different aspects of
the field has been reviewed: The fundamental contributions to the
electronpositron pair creation and annihilation and the concept of
critical electric field; Nonlinear electrodynamics and rate of pair
creation; Pair production and annihilation in QED; Semiclassical
description of pair production in a general electric field;
Phenomenology of electronpositron pair creation and annihilation;
The extraction of blackholic energy from a black hole by vacuum
polarization processes; Plasma oscillations in electric fields;
Thermalization of the mildly relativistic pair plasma. Due to the
interaction of physics and astrophysics we are witnessing in these
years a splendid synthesis of theoretical, experimental and
observational results originating from three fundamental physical
processes. They were originally proposed by Dirac, by Breit and
Wheeler and by Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger. For almost
seventy years they have all three been followed by a continued effort
of experimental verification on Earthbased experiments. The Dirac
process, e^{+}e^{}
→2 g,
has been by far the most successful. It has obtained extremely
accurate experimental verification and has led as well to an enormous
number of new physics in possibly one of the most fruitful
experimental avenues by introduction of storage rings in Frascati and
followed by the largest accelerators worldwide: DESY, SLAC etc. The
BreitWheeler process, 2g
→ e^{+}e^{},
although conceptually simple, being the inverse process of the Dirac
one, has been by far one of the most difficult to be verified
experimentally. Only recently, through the technology based on free
electron Xray laser and its numerous applications in Earthbased
experiments, some first indications of its possible verification have
been reached. The vacuum polarization process in strong
electromagnetic field, pioneered by Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and
Schwinger, introduced the concept of critical electric field. It has
been searched without success for more than forty years by heavyion
collisions in many of the leading particle accelerators worldwide. In
view of the recent developments in the free electron lasers, we have
invited at ICRANet Prof. John Madey, the inventor of the free
electron lasers, to give a set of lectures and to explore the
possibility to have, by focusing the free electron laser signals, the
realization in the laboratory of the BreitWheeler process. Prof.
Madey has also accepted the position of Adjunct Professor at ICRANet,
and he is planning a collaboration with us in the forthcoming years.
In
this
report, using the formula obtained for the rate of pair production in
spatially varying external electric field dynamical equations
describing the space and time evolutions of pairinduced electric
charges, currents and fields bounded within a given spatial region
are solved. We also study nonlinear electrodynamics by considering
two laser beams collision and laser beam colliding with highenergy
photon and neutrino beam, and scaling behaves of strong QED, as well
as quantum corrections to black hole properties due to
EulerHeisenberg Lagrangian, gravitational and electric energies
conversion in gravitational collapses. The origin of fermion mass is
due to quantum gravity. These results imply the wave propagation of
the pairinduced electric field and wavetransportation of the
electromagnetic energy in the strong field region. Analogously to the
electromagnetic radiation emitted from an alternating electric
current, the space and time variations of pairinduced electric
currents and charges emit an electromagnetic radiation. We show that
this radiation has a peculiar energyspectrum that is clearly
distinguishable from the energyspectra of the bremsstrahlung
radiation, electron–positron annihilation and other possible
background events. This possibly provides a distinctive way to detect
the radiation signatures for the production and oscillation of
electron–positron pairs in ultrastrong electric fields that can be
realized in either ground laboratories or astrophysical environments.
(W.B. Han, R. Ruffini, S.S. Xue, Physics Letters B 691 (2010) 99).
We focus our attention on studying how this oscillation frequency
approaches the plasma frequency. The spectrum of this dipole
radiation shows a unique linelike feature, as discussed above. This
can possibly be candidate of the recently
discovered 3.6 eV emission line from Galactic centers. The e^{+}e^{−}
pairs generated by the vacuum polarization process around a
gravitationally collapsing charged core are entangled in the
electromagnetic field (R. Ruffini, L. Vitagliano, S.S. Xue, Phys.
Lett. B 573, (2003) 33), and thermalize in an
electron–positron–photon plasma on a time scale ~ 10^{4}
_{C}
(R. Ruffini, L. Vitagliano, S.S. Xue, Phys. Lett. B 559, (2003) 12).
As soon as the thermalization has occurred, the hydrodynamic
expansion of this electrically neutral plasma starts (R. Ruffini, J.
Salmonson, J. Wilson, S.S. Xue, A&A Vol. 335 (1999) 334; Vol.
359 (2000) 855). While the temporal evolution of the e^{+}e^{−}
gravitationally collapsing core moves inwards, giving rise to a
further amplified supercritical field, which in turn generates a
larger amount of e^{+}e^{−}
pairs leading to a yet higher temperature in the newly formed e^{+}e^{−}
plasma. We study this theoretically challenging process, which is
marked by distinctive and precise quantum and general relativistic
effects, and follow the dynamical phase of the formation of
Dyadosphere and of the asymptotic approach to the horizon by
examining the time varying process at the surface of the
gravitationally collapsing core. We conclude that the core is not
discharged or, in other words, the electric charge of the core is
stable against vacuum polarization and electric field is amplified
during the gravitational collapse. As a consequence, an enormous
amount of pairs is left behind the collapsing core and a
Dyadosphere
(G. Preparata, R. Ruffini, S.S. Xue, A&A Vol. 338 (1998) L87) is
formed. Recently, we study this pairproduction process in a neutral
collapsing stellar core at or over nuclear densities, and show an
overcritical electric field on the surface of baryon core. It is
shown that in gravitational corecollapse, such an electric field
dynamically evolves in the spacetime and electronpositron pairs are
produced, leading to the Dyadosphere of electronpositron pairs. This
result has been published in W. B. Han, R. Ruffini, S.S. Xue,
Physics Review D86, 084004 (2012). In order to understand the
backreaction of such electric energy building and radiating on
collapse, we further adopt a simplified model describing the collapse
of a spherically thin capacitor to give an analytical description how
gravitational energy is converted to both kinetic and electric
energies in collapse. It is shown that (i) averaged kinetic and
electric energies are the same order, about a half of gravitational
energy of spherically thin capacitor in collapse; (ii) caused by
radiating and rebuilding electric energy, gravitational collapse
undergoes a sequence of ``on and off'' hopping steps in the
microscopic Compton scale. This has been published (R. Ruffini, and
SS. Xue, Physics Letters A377 (2013) 2450). Taking into account the
EulerHeisenberg effective Lagrangian of oneloop nonperturbative QED
contributions, we formulate the EinsteinEulerHeisenberg theory and
study the solutions of nonrotating black holes with electric and
magnetic charges in spherical geometry. In the limit of strong and
weak electromagnetic fields of black holes, we calculate the black
hole horizon radius, area, and total energy up to the leading order
of QED corrections and discuss the black hole irreducible mass,
entropy, and maximally extractable energy as well as the
ChristodoulouRuffini mass formula. This result has been published
(R. Ruffini, Y.B. Wu and S.S. Xue, Physics Review D88, 085004
(2013)). An interesting aspect of effective field theories in the
strongfield limit has recently been emphasized in a completely
different class of quantum field theories. These have the property of
developing in the strongfield limit an anomalous power behavior. We
study that pairproduction in superposition of static and plane wave
fields, and in the strong fields expansion, the leading order
behavior of the EulerHeisenberg effective Lagrangian is logarithmic,
and can be formulated as a power law. These results have been
published in (H. Kleinert, E. Strobel and SS. Xue, Phys. Rev. D88,
025049 (2013), Annals
of Physics Vol. 333 (2013) 104).
On the ground laboratories, experiments, for example ELI, set up for
intense laser beams and their collisions with high energy photons
(Wheeler process) has been going on very fast to study the strong
field phenomena in particular electronpositron pair production. We
have investigated the fundamental processes relevant to the issues of
intense laser physics, pairproduction in multicomponent electric
fields (Nucl.
Phys B 886, (2014) 1153);
two laser beams colliding with a highenergy photon (Y.B. Wu and
SS. Xue, Phys.
Rev. D 90, 013009 (2014))，as
well as pairoscillation leading to electromagnetic and gravitational
radiation (W.B.
Han and S.S. Xue, Phys. Rev. D89 (2014) 024008).
We study the photon circularpolarization produced by twolaser beams
collision (R.
Mohammadi, I. Motie, and S.S. Xue, Phys. Rev. A 89, 062111
(2014)),
and by laser and neutrino beams collisions (Phys.
Lett. B 731 (2014) 272; Phys.
Rev. D
90, 091301(R) (2014)).
These
fundamental
processes are also relevant to highenergy phenomena in relativistic
astrophysics, that we will study further.
Papers
published in 2015 include:

H.
Kleinert and S.S. Xue, “Critical fermion density for restoring
spontaneously broken symmetry”, Mod. Phys. Lett. A, Vol. 30, No.
24 (2015) 1550122.

S.S.
Xue, “Particle spectra for matter and the candidates for dark
matter, resonant and nonresonant phenomena of fourfermion operators
in quantum EinsteinCartan theory”, Physics Letters B744 88–94
(2015).

S.S.
Xue, “How universe evolves with cosmological and gravitational
constants in the field theory of EinsteinCartan gravity”, Nuclear
Physics B897 326–345 (2015).

E.
Strobel and S.S. Xue, “Semiclassical pair production rate for
rotating electric fields”, Physics Review D 91, 045016 (2015).

L.
Hendrik, R. Ruffini, and S.S. Xue, “Collective electronic
pulsation of compressed atoms in ThomasFermi model”, Nuclear
Physics A 941, 1–15 (2015).

J.
Rueda, R. Ruffini, Y.B. Wu and S.S. Xue, “Surface tension for
heavy atoms”, to appear in Physics Review C.

R.
Ruffini, G. Vereshchagin and S.S. Xue, “Cosmic absorption of
ultra high energy particles”, to appear in Astrophysics and Space
Science.
From nuclei to compact stars
(Page 1271)
A multiyear
study in ICRA and ICRANet has been devoted to the relativistic
ThomasFermi equations. The early work was directed to the analysis
of superheavy nuclei. In the last years, a special attention has been
given to formulate a unified approach which, on one side, describes
the superheavy nuclei and, on the other, what we have called “Massive
Nuclear Cores”. These last ones are systems of about 10^{57}
nucleons, kept together in beta equilibrium and at nuclear density
due to the effect of self gravity. The most surprising result has
been that the analytic treatment used by Prof. Popov and his group in
their classical work on superheavy nuclei can be scaled to the
Massive Nuclear Core regime in presence of gravity. The consequences
of this is that an electric field close to the critical
value E_{c}
= m_{e}^{2}c^{3}/(eℏ)
can
be found on the surface layer of such Massive Nuclear Cores. This
fortunate result has triggered a great interest and has opened what
it can be considered a new approach to the electrodynamics of neutron
stars within ICRANet.
This activity comprises the
study of compact objects such as white dwarfs, neutron stars and
black holes. It requires the interplay between nuclear and atomic
physics together with relativistic field theories, e.g., general
relativity, quantum electrodynamics, quantum chromodynamics, as well
as particle physics. In addition to the theoretical physics aspects,
the study of astrophysical scenarios characterized by the presence of
a compact object has also started to be focus of extensive research
within this group. The research is divided into the following topics:
nuclear and atomic astrophysics; white dwarfs and neutron star
physics and astrophysics; radiation mechanisms in white dwarfs and
neutron stars; exact solutions of the Einstein and EinsteinMaxwell
equations in astrophysics and critical fields and nonlinear
electrodynamics effects in astrophysics. The research activity sees
the collaboration within ICRANet of D. Arnett, D. Bini, L. Izzo, H.
Kleinert, V. Popov, J. Rueda, R. Ruffini, G. Vereschagin, and S.S.
Xue; external collaborations with K. Boshkayev, C. Cherubini, S.
Chiapparini, S. B., S. Filippi, C. L. Fryer, E. GacíaBerro, P.
Lorén Aguilar, S. O. Kepler, B. Kulebi, M. Malheiro, R. M. Jr.
Marinho, G. Mathews, D. P. Menezes, H. MosqueraCuesta, R. Negreiros,
L. Pachón, H. Quevedo, C. Valenzuela, and C. A. Z. Vasconcellos; and
includes as well the participation of postdocs; R. Belvedere, R.
Camargo, J. G. Coelho, and S. M. de Carvalho, and graduate students
from the IRAP PhD, the Erasmus Mundus Joint Doctorate, and the
CAPESICRANet Programs; L. Becerra, D. L. Cáceres, F. Cipolletta, M.
Muccino, F. G. Oliveira, J. Pereira, and Y. Wu.
One of the
main objectives have been to construct a unified approach for nuclei,
superheavy nuclei up to atomic numbers of the order of 10^{5}–10^{6},
and what we have denominated “nuclear matter cores of stellar
dimensions”: characterized by atomic number of the order of 10^{57};
composed by a degenerate fluid of neutrons, protons and electrons in
betaequilibrium; globally neutral configurations; expected to be
kept at nuclear density by selfgravity. The study of these objects
going from the microscopic to the macroscopic is at the base of the
theory of white dwarfs, neutron stars, hyperon stars, strange quark
stars, and other related compact objects. The analysis of superheavy
nuclei has historically represented a major field of research,
developed by Prof. V. Popov and Prof. W. Greiner and their schools.
In 2007 the ICRANet group found the welcome result that all the
analytic work developed by Prof. V. Popov and the Russian school can
be applied using scaling laws satisfied by the relativistic
ThomasFermi equation to the case of nuclear matter cores of stellar
dimensions, if the beta equilibrium condition is properly taken into
account. Since then, a large variety of problems has emerged, which
have seen the direct participation of the above mentioned ICRANet
Faculty and Adjunct Faculty staff.
The analysis
of globally neutral and compressed configurations composed by a
nucleus made of relativistic degenerate neutrons and protons
surrounded by relativistic degenerate electrons in betaequilibrium
was accomplished in 2011 by Rotondo et al. generalizing the
FeynmanMetropolisTeller treatment of compressed atoms to
relativistic regimes. This treatment led to the possibility of
studying the degenerate compressed matter in white dwarfs, and to
compute the star’s structure within a fully selfconsistent
relativistic framework. The generalization of the general
relativistic theory of white dwarfs to the rotating case has been
successfully achieved in the thesis work of K. Boshkayev. The entire
family of uniformly rotating stable white dwarfs has been already
obtained by studying the massshedding, the inverse betadecay,
pycnonuclear, and axisymmetric instabilities. The maximum mass and
the minimum (maximum) rotation period (frequency) have been obtained
for selected nuclear compositions. These results are relevant both
for the theory of type Ia supernovae as well as for the recent work
of M. Malheiro, J. Rueda and R. Ruffini on the description of
SoftGammaRay Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous XRay Pulsars (AXPs) as
rotation powered white dwarfs, following a pioneer idea of M. Morini
et al. (1988) and of B. Paczynski (1990) on the AXP 1E 2259+586. The
recent observation of SGR 0418+5729 promises to be an authentic
Rosetta Stone, a powerful discriminant for alternative models of SGRs
and AXPs. The loss of rotational energy of a neutron star cannot
explain the Xray luminosity of SGR 0418+5729, excluding the
possibility of identifying this source as an ordinary spindown
powered neutron star. The inferred upper limit of the surface
magnetic field of SGR 0418+5729 B
<
7.5x10^{12}
G, describing it as a neutron star within the magnetic braking
scenario, is well below the critical magnetic field B_{c}=2m^{2}_{e}c^{3}/(he)
=4.4x10^{13}
G, challenging the power mechanism based on magnetic field decay
purported in the magnetar scenario. We have shown that the observed
upper limit on the spindown rate of SGR 0418+5729 is, instead,
perfectly in line with a model based on a massive fast rotating
highly magnetized white dwarf of fiducial mass M=1.4M_{Sun},
radius R=10^{3}
km, and moment of inertia I
=10^{49}
g cm^{2}.
We have analyzed the energetics of all SGRs and AXPs including their
steady emission, the glitches and their subsequent outburst
activities. It can be then shown that the occurrence of the glitch,
the associated sudden shortening of the period, as well as the
corresponding gain of rotational energy, can be explained by the
release of gravitational energy associated to a sudden contraction
and decrease of the moment of inertia of the white dwarfs, consistent
with the conservation of their angular momentum. The energetics of
the steady emission as well as the one of the outbursts following the
glitch can be simply explained in term of the loss of the rotational
energy in view of the moment of inertia of the white dwarfs, much
larger than the one of neutron stars. There is no need here to invoke
the decay of ultrastrong magnetic fields of the magnetar model (see
Fig. 24).
A more exhaustive analysis of SGR 0418+5729 within the white dwarf
model has been recently achieved in the Ph. D. thesis of K.
Boshkayev. The request of the rotational stability of the white dwarf
gives bounds for the mass, radius, moment of inertia and magnetic
field, through the analysis of constant rotation period sequences of
uniformly rotating white dwarfs. We have also analyzed the emission
properties in the optical band, and inferred the cyclotron
frequencies associated to their magnetic fields which might cause
absorption features in the optical wavelengths. The same analysis has
been accomplished for Swift J1822.31606 and 1E 2259+586. We are in
addition considering the possible progenitors of these massive fast
rotating highly magnetized white dwarfs. We have considered the
possibility that white dwarfs mergers could be the progenitor of
white dwarfs with the above desirable properties, hence of SGRs and
AXPs. In collaboration with P. Loren from University of Exeter in UK,
and the group led by Prof. GarciaBerro at Universitat Politecnica de
Catalunya and Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia in Barcelona,
we have performed numerical simulations of white dwarf mergers. We
have shown that the products of these mergers consist of a hot
central magnetized white dwarf surrounded by a heavy rapidly rotating
disk. The evolution of the postmerger massive rapidly rotating
magnetized white dwarf and its emission properties in the optical
bands, have been computed. We have shown that these properties are
consistent with AXPs such as 4U 0142+61, which show an infrared
excess explainable via the existence of a dust disk, whereas the
surface black body emission well describes the observations in the UV
bands. The emission by these white dwarfs in the Xray band is
currently under consideration and it is the subject of the Ph. D.
thesis of D. L. Cáceres, and part of the research project of the
Postdoc J. G. Coelho.
A further
extension of the above treatment of white dwarfs to the case of
finite temperatures has been part of the PhD work of S. M. de
Carvalho. The inclusion of finite temperature effects is relevant in
view of the recent discovery of ultralow mass white dwarfs with
masses. 0.2M_{Sun},
which are companion of neutron stars in relativistic binaries
(Antoniadis et al., 2012, 2013). These lowmass white dwarfs
represent the perfect arena for testing the equation of state of
compressed matter since the central densities of these objects are of
the order of 10^{6}
g cm^{3},
where the degenerate approximation breaks down, thus thermal effects
cannot be neglected. We have used this new equation of state to
construct the massradius relation of white dwarfs at finite
temperatures in a wide range of central densities. We analyze the
particular case of the white dwarf companion of the pulsar PSR
J1738+0333, which is expected to have a mass 0.18M_{Sun}
(Antoniadis et al., 2012). Using the observed surface effective
temperature and surface gravity of the white dwarf we have inferred
the central temperature in the white dwarf core.
Regarding
the structure properties of white dwarfs, it has been recently
purported by Das & Mukhopadhyay (2013) that the presence of huge
uniform magnetic fields of the order of 10^{18}
G, in the interior of a white dwarf, increases its maximum mass from
the traditional Chandrasekhar value, 1.44 M_{Sun},
to a new upper bound, 2.58 M_{Sun}.
Such a much larger limit would make these astrophysical objects
viable candidates for the explanation of the superluminous population
of type Ia supernovae. We have shown in (Coelho et al., 2014) that
the new mass limit was obtained neglecting several macro and micro
physical aspects such as gravitational, dynamical stability, breaking
of spherical symmetry, general relativity, inverse b decay, and
pycnonuclear fusion reactions. These effects are relevant for the
selfconsistent description of the structure and assessment of
stability of these objects. When accounted for, they lead to the
conclusion that the existence of such ultramagnetized white dwarfs
in nature is very unlikely due to violation of minimal requests of
stability, and therefore the canonical Chandrasekhar mass limit of
white dwarfs has to be still applied.
Progress has
been also made in a formulation of the equations of equilibrium of
neutron stars. We studied the construction of neutron stars within a
fully consistent formulation equilibrium configurations in general
relativity accounting for all the fundamental interactions. These
neutron stars fulfill global but not local charge neutrality. The
full system of equilibrium equations formed a coupled system that we
have denominated EinsteinMaxwellThomasFermi (EMTF) equations. The
solution of these new equilibrium equations leads to a markedly
different massradius relation of neutron stars due to the different
treatment of the boundaryvalue problem imposed by the corecrust
transition. A crust of smaller mass and thickness is obtained (see
Fig. 25).
This work has been successfully generalized to the case of uniformly
rotating neutron stars, and it has been part of the Ph. D. thesis of
R. Belvedere, current Postdoc at ICRANetRio. The stability of
neutron stars against massshedding and secular axisymmetric
instabilities have been addressed. The analysis of the properties of
the corecrust interface of a neutron star, such as its surface and
Coulomb energies, and stability against perturbations have been
studied by Y. Wu and J. Pereira in their Ph. D. theses. This entire
program has been developed in order to identify the initial boundary
conditions for the electrodynamical process occurring at the onset of
gravitational collapse leading to a black hole.
We have recently investigated
in collaboration with Prof. C. A. Z. Vasconcellos and other Brazilian
colleagues, extensions of the traditional sigmaomegarho
relativistic nuclear mean field model applied to the nuclear matter
in neutron stars. We have introduced manybody correlations within a
quantum hadrodynamics (QHD) model with parameterized couplings. We
considered the whole fundamental baryon octet and the manybody
forces are simulated by nonlinear selfcouplings and mesonmeson
interaction terms involving scalarisoscalar, vectorisoscalar,
vectorisovector, and scalarisovector.
Coming back to globally versus
locally neutral neutron stars, there is the need of seeking for
potential observations which could reveal the aforementioned new
structure of the neutron star. Since the thermal evolution of a
neutron star is strongly sensitive to its microscopic and macroscopic
properties, one possibility to unveil the neutron star structure is
represented by observing their coolingdown. Thus, we have recently
computed in collaboration with S. M. de Carvalho, current Postdoc in
University of Fluminense and ICRANetRio, and Prof. R. Negreiros from
the University of Fluminense, the cooling curves of locally and
globally neutral neutron stars. We have integrated numerically the
energy balance and transport equations in general relativity, for
globally neutral neutron stars with crusts of different masses and
sizes, according to this theory for different corecrust transition
interfaces. In the simulation we consider all the main radiation
emissivities, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and possible
superconductivity of the nucleons. We found that the relaxation time
depends upon the density at the base of the crust and, therefore,
accurate observations of the thermal relaxation phase in the first
years of evolution of newlyborn neutron stars might give crucial
information on the corecrust transition, probing the inner
composition and structure of these objects.
Turning to
neutron star astrophysics, we have also analyzed an interesting class
of pulsars referred to as highmagnetic field pulsars, which are
thought to be transition objects between pulsars and magnetars. The
reason for this is that using fiducial values of mass M=1.4M_{Sun},
radius R=10
km, and moment of inertia I
=10^{45}
g cm^{2
}for
a neutron star, the magnetic fields inferred using the traditional
magnetodipole rotating model of pulsars appear to be very close and
some of them even higher than the critical field of quantum
electrodynamics, B_{c}=2m^{2}_{e}c^{3}/(he)
=4.4x10^{13}
G. In addition, their Xray luminosities appear higher than the
rotational energy loss of the object, avoiding their explanation as
rotationpowered pulsars. However, we have recently shown in R.
Belvedere, J.A. Rueda, R. Ruffini, ApJ, 799,
23 (2015)
that the use of realistic parameters of rotating neutron stars
obtained from numerical integration of the selfconsistent
axisymmetric general relativistic equations of equilibrium with
realistic interior equation of state leads to values of the magnetic
field and radiation efficiency of pulsars very different from
estimates based on fiducial parameters. Furthermore, we compared and
contrasted the magnetic field inferred from the traditional Newtonian
rotating magnetic dipole model with respect to the one obtained from
its general relativistic analog which takes into due account the
effect of the finite size of the source. We have indeed shown that
all the highmagnetic field pulsars can be described as canonical
rotationpowered objects driven by the rotational energy of the
neutron star, and with magnetic fields lower than the quantum
critical field for any value of the neutron star mass (see Fig. 26).
The
understanding of the theory of neutron stars has allowed the analysis
of their role in astrophysical systems such as the GRBs, the
GRBSupernova, and the short GRBs. It has been analyzed in detail the
binary progenitors of these systems with particular emphasis on the
role played by neutron stars.
Concerning
the role of neutron stars in the induced gravitational collapse (IGC)
paradigm of gammaray bursts (GRBs) associated with supernovae (SNe)
Ic. The progenitor of those sources is a tight binary system composed
of a carbonoxygen (CO) core and a neutron star (NS) companion. The
explosion of the SN leads to hypercritical accretion onto the NS
companion, which reaches the critical mass, hence inducing its
gravitational collapse to a black hole (BH) with consequent emission
of the GRB. The first estimates of this process by Rueda and Ruffini
(2012) were based on a simplified model of the binary parameters and
the BondiHoyleLyttleton accretion rate. We present new results in
(Fryer et al., 2014) with the first full numerical simulations of the
IGC phenomenon. We simulate the corecollapse and SN explosion of CO
stars to obtain the density and ejection velocity of the SN ejecta.
We follow the hydrodynamic evolution of the accreting material
falling into the BondiHoyle surface of the NS all the way up to its
incorporation in the NS surface. The simulations go up to BH
formation when the NS reaches the critical mass. For appropriate
binary parameters, the IGC occurs in short timescales 10^{2}–10^{3}
s owing to the combined effective action of the photon trapping and
the neutrino cooling near the NS surface (see Fig. 27).
We also show that the IGC scenario leads to a natural explanation for
why GRBs are associated only with SNe Ic with totally absent or very
little helium.
Concerning
short GRBs, we had the first example that they are the result of the
merger of neutron star binaries. F. Gomes Oliveira, as part of her
Ph. D. thesis, has computed the evolution of binary neutron stars up
to the merger point to evaluate the emission of gravitational waves
in these systems. The dynamics has been simulated via the effective
onebody formalism of Prof. Thibault Damour, up to fourth
postNewtonian order. The detectability of this emission by second
generation detectors such as Advanced LIGO has been assessed, and the
total energy output in gravitational waves has been compared with the
observed emission in both X and gamma rays. This work has been
possible thanks to the analysis of the first genuinely short GRB
090227B by Muccino et al. (2013), where it has been shown that the
properties of this GRB indeed are consistent with a binary neutron
star progenitor.
Some
of the above topics are leading to the preparation of a new book with
Springer with the title “From the nuclei to the stars” by J.
Rueda and R. Ruffini.
Papers
published in 2015 include:

A.
Mesquita, M. Razeira, R. Ruffini, J. A. Rueda, D. Hadjimichef, R. O.
Gomes, and C. A. Z. Vasconcellos, “An effective field theory for
neutron stars with manybody forces, strong $\Sigma^$ repulsion,
and $K^$ and $\bar{K}^0$ condensation”, Astronomische Nachrichten
336, 880 (2015).

L.
Becerra, F. Cipolletta, C. L. Fryer, J. A. Rueda, and R. Ruffini,
“Angular Momentum Role in the Hypercritical Accretion of
BinarydrivenHypernovae”, ApJ 812, 100 (2015).

R.
Ruffini, M. Muccino, M. Kovacevic, F. G. Oliveira, J. A. Rueda, C.
L. Bianco, M. Enderli, A. V. Penacchioni, G. B. Pisani, Y. Wang, and
E. Zaninoni, “GRB 140619B: a short GRB from a binary neutron star
merger leading to black hole formation”, ApJ 808, 190 (2015).

F.
Cipolletta, C. Cherubini, S. Filippi, J. A. Rueda, and R. Ruffini,
“Fast rotating neutron stars with realistic nuclear matter
equation of state”, Phys. Rev. D 92, 023007 (2015).

K.
Boshkayev, J. A. Rueda, and M. Muccino, “Extracting multipole
moments of neutron stars from quasiperiodic oscillations in low
mass Xray binaries”, Astronomy Reports 59, 441 (2015).

J.
P. Pereira and J. A. Rueda, “Energy decomposition within
EinsteinBornInfeld black holes”, Phys. Rev. D 91, 064048 (2015).

J.
P. Pereira and J. A. Rueda, “Radial Stability in Stratified
Stars”, ApJ 801, 19 (2015).

R.
Belvedere, J. A. Rueda, and R. Ruffini, “On the Magnetic Field of
Pulsars with Realistic Neutron Star Configurations”, ApJ 799, 23
(2015).

C.
L. Fryer, F. G. Oliveira, J. A. Rueda, R. Ruffini, “On the Neutron
StarBlack Hole Binaries Produced by BinarydrivenHypernovae”,
Phys. Rev. Lett., 115, 231102 (2015).

S.
M. de Carvalho, J. A. Rueda, and R. Ruffini, “On the Relativistic
FeynmanMetropolis Equation of State at Finite Temperatures”, in
Thirteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting: On Recent Developments in
Theoretical and Experimental General Relativity, Astrophysics and
Relativistic Field Theories (K. Rosquist, ed.), pp. 24812483, Jan.
2015.

K.
Boshkayev, J. A. Rueda, R. Ruffini, and I. Siutsou, “General
Relativistic and Newtonian White Dwarfs”, in Thirteenth Marcel
Grossmann Meeting: On Recent Developments in Theoretical and
Experimental General Relativity, Astrophysics and Relativistic Field
Theories (K. Rosquist, ed.), pp. 24682474, Jan. 2015.

K.
Boshkayev, J. A. Rueda, and R. Ruffini, “SGRs and AXPs as Massive
Fast Rotating Highly Magnetized White Dwarfs: the Case of SGR
0418+5729”, in Thirteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting: On Recent
Developments in Theoretical and Experimental General Relativity,
Astrophysics and Relativistic Field Theories (K. Rosquist, ed.), pp.
22952300, Jan. 2015.

J.
A. Rueda and R. Ruffini, “Strong, Weak, Electromagnetic, and
Gravitational Interactions in Neutron Stars”, in Thirteenth Marcel
Grossmann Meeting: On Recent Developments in Theoretical and
Experimental General Relativity, Astrophysics and Relativistic Field
Theories (K. Rosquist, ed.), pp. 191209, Jan. 2015.

F.
G. Oliveira, J. A. Rueda, and R. Ruffini, “X, GammaRays, and
Gravitational Waves Emission in a Short GammaRay Burst”,
Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings, vol. 40, p. 43, 2015.
Supernovae (Page 1375)
GRBs have broaden the existing
problematic of the study of Supernovae. In some models, e.g. the
“collapsar” one, all GRBs are assumed to originate from
supernovae. Within our approach, we assume that corecollapse
supernovae can only lead to neutron stars, and we also assume that
GRBs are exclusively generated in the collapse to a black hole.
Within this framework, supernovae and GRBs do necessarily originate
in a binary system composed by an evolved main sequence star and a
neutron star. The concept of induced gravitational collapse
leads to the temporal coincidence between the transition from the
neutron star to the black hole and the concurrent transition of the
late evolved star into a supernova. This very wide topic has been
promoted by the collaboration with Prof. Massimo Della Valle, who is
an Adjunct Professor at ICRANet and who is currently CoPI of a VLT
proposal “A spectroscopic study of the supernova/GRB connection”.
This kind of research is particularly important for trying to find a
coincidence between electromagnetic radiation, highenergy particles,
ultra highenergy cosmic rays, neutrinos and gravitational radiation,
possible observable for existing or future detectors. A short summary
of the internationally wellknown activities of Prof. Della Valle,
who is an Adjunct Professor at ICRANet, is given in the report, which
contains the many publications in international journals. Prof. Della
Valle is also very actively following one graduate student of the
IRAP PhD program. A new stimulus has come from the recent
understanding of the IGC paradigm, which allows a completely new
understanding of the relation between the supernovae and the GRBs.
Papers published in 2015
include:

“Supernova rates from the
SUDARE VSTOmegaCAM search. I. Rates per unit volume”, Cappellaro
et al. 2015, A&A, 584, 62

“On the diversity of
superluminous supernovae: ejected mass as the dominant factor”,
Nicholl, M. et al. 2015, MNRAS, 452, 3869

“New measurements of Ωm
from gammaray bursts”, Izzo, L. et al. 2015, A&A, 582, 115

“Early Optical Spectra of
Nova V1369 Cen Show the Presence of Lithium”, Izzo et al. 2015,
ApJ, 808, L14

“PESSTO: survey
description and products from the first data release by the Public
ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects”, Smartt, S. et al.
2015, A&A, 579, 40

“SN 2013dx associated
with GRB 130702A: a detailed photometric and spectroscopic
monitoring and a study of the environment”, D'Elia, V. et al.
2015, A&A, 577, 116

“Supersolar Ni/Fe
production in the Type IIP SN 2012ec”, Jerkstrand, A.et al. 2015,
MNRAS, 448, 2482

“Corecollapse and Type
Ia supernovae with the SKA”, PerezTorres, M. et al. 2015,
Proceedings of Advancing Astrophysics with the Square Kilometre
Array (AASKA14). 9 13 June, 2014. Giardini Naxos, Italy

“The SKA contribution to
GRB cosmology”, Amati, L. et al. 2015, Proceedings of Advancing
Astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array (AASKA14). 9 13 June,
2014. Giardini Naxos, Italy
Symmetries in General
Relativity (Page 1387)
This
topic has been developed as
an intense collaboration between various research groups. We had and
we have the opportunity of the presence in Pescara of Prof. Roy Kerr
as
ICRANet Adjunct
Professor and discussed the fundamental issues of the uniqueness of
the KerrNewman Black Hole. A distinct progress in this collaboration
has appeared in the paper by D. Bini, A. Geralico, R. Kerr, “The
KerrShild ansatz revised”, International
Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics (IJGMMP)
7 (2010), 693703. Profs. R.T. Jantzen, L. Stella (Observatory of
Monte Porzio, Rome), O. Semerak (Czech Republic), D. Bini and Dr. A.
Geralico have studied the problem of motion of test particles in
black hole spacetimes, in presence of a superposed radiation field.
The scattering of radiation by the test particles causes a
frictionlike drag force which forces particles on certain
equilibrium orbits outside the black hole horizon. This interesting
effect, known as PoyntingRobertson effect, has been deeply
investigated in many different contexts: besides the Schwarzschild
and Kerr black hole, novel results have been published for the case
of a Vaidya radiation metric. In the latter case, in fact, one takes
the advantages of having an exact solution of the Einstein’s field
equations whose source is a null field. Among the various
consequences we mention that while a unique equilibrium circular
orbit exists if the photon flux has zero angular momentum, multiple
such orbits appear if the photon angular momentum is sufficiently
high. Furthermore other solutions of the Weyl class with cylindrical
symmetry as well as solutions within the class of exact gravitational
plane waves and electromagnetic plane waves have been examined in the
context of PoyntingRobertson like effects obtaining a number of
physically relevant situations. Bini and Geralico have also
considered the motion of spinning test particles in Kerr spacetime in
full generality with the aim to study deviations between the world
lines of spinning objects in comparison with those of geodesic test
particles, generalizing some recent works on the same topic where
motion were but constrained on the equatorial plane. Bini, Geralico
and Jantzen have been able to obtain new foliations in spacetimes
admitting separable geodesics. These “separable geodesic action
slicing” have been used then to explore certain geometrical
properties of horizon penetrating coordinates in black hole
spacetimes. Other collaborations, again for what concerns the topics
included in symmetries in General Relativity, have been started with
Profs. A. Ortolan (INFN Legnaro, Padova, Italy) and P. Fortini
(University of Ferrara, Italy) to study of the interaction of
electromagnetic waves with gravitational waves, with the
gravitational waves considered in the exact theory and not in its
linear approximation.
Papers published in 2015
include:

Bini
D., Geralico A., Jantzen R.T., Semerak O., “Particles under
radiation thrust in Schwarzschild spacetime: a flux perpendicular
to the equatorial plane”, Monthly Notices of the Royal
Astronomical Society, 446, 1907–1919 (2015).

Bini
D. and Geralico A. “Effect of an arbitrary spin orientation on the
quadrupolar structure of an extended body in a Schwarzschild
spacetime”, Phys. Rev. D, 91, 104036 (2015)

Bini
D. and Geralico A., “Tidal invariants along the world line of an
extended body in the Kerr spacetime”, Phys. Rev. D 91, no. 8,
084012 (2015).

Bini
D. and Damour T., “Detweiler's gaugeinvariant redshift variable:
analytic determination of the nine and nineandahalf
postNewtonian selfforce contributions”, Phys. Rev. D 91, 064050
(2015)

Bini
D., Mashhoon B. “Weitzenböck's
Torsion, Fermi Coordinates and Adapted Frames”, Phys. Rev. D, 91,
no. 8, 084026 (2015)

Bini
D., Bittencourt E., Geralico A. and Jantzen R.T., “Slicing black
hole spacetimes”, International Journal of Geometric Methods in
Modern Physics Vol. 12 (2015) 1550070

Bini
D. and Damour T., “Analytic determination of highorder
postNewtonian selfforce contributions to gravitational spin
precession”, Phys. Rev. D 91, 064064 (2015)

Bini
D., Iorio L. and Giordano D., “Orbital effects due to
gravitational induction”, General Relativity and Gravitation, vol.
47, (2015).

Bini
D., Bittencourt E. and Geralico A., “Massless Dirac particles in
the vacuum Cmetric”, Classical and Quantum Gravity, 32, 215010
(2015)

Bini
D. , de Felice F., “Chronology protection in the Kerr metric”,
General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 47, (2015)

Bini
D., Faye G. and Geralico A., “Dynamics of extended bodies in a
Kerr spacetime with spininduced quadrupole tensor”, Phys. Rev. D
(2015) to appear
Self Gravitating Systems,
Galactic Structures and Galactic Dynamics (Page 1507)
In collaboration with Campus
BioMedico in Rome there are ongoing researches on galactic
structures. The Reports is focused on analytical and numerical
methods for the study of classical selfgravitating fluid/gaseous
masses. A series of papers of this group have been devoted in the
past to the generalization of the classical theory of ellipsoidal
figures of equilibrium using virial methods. The research activities
of the group have focused subsequently on functional methods for
obtaining equilibrium solutions for polytropic selfgravitating
systems that rotate and have a non uniform vorticity. The group has
recently published a novel and important result in the context of
analogous geometry theory. It is well known that the wave equation
for the perturbations of given a perfect barotropic and irrotational
Newtonian fluid can be rewritten as an “effective General
Relativity”. They have extended this result including the
possibility for the fluid to be selfgravitating. This work opens the
path for a new interpretation of classical whitedwarf theory in
terms of curved spacetime techniques. The group has also studied the
perturbations of classical compressible rotating but not gravitating
fluids as occurring in generalized acoustic black holes. It has also
analyzed the Analog Gravity formalism at full nonlinear level through
Von Mises’ Wave Equation for irrotational configurations.
Papers published in 2015
include:

Cipolletta F., Cherubini
C., Filippi S., Rueda J.A., Ruffini R., Phys. Rev. D, 92, (2015),
023007.

Cherubini C. and Filippi
S.,"The Hamiltonian field theory of the Von Mises wave
equation: analytical and computational issues",
Commun.Comput.Phys. accepted (2015).
Interdisciplinary Complex
Systems (Page 1545)
We recall the successful
attempt of applying methodologies developed in Relativistic
Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics to researches in the medicine
domain. The Report adopts analytical and numerical methods for the
study of problems of nonlinear dynamics focusing on biological
systems and using a theoretical physics approach. It is well
established both numerically and experimentally that nonlinear
systems involving diffusion, chemotaxis, and/or convection mechanisms
can generate complicated timedependent spiral waves, as in happens
in chemical reactions, slime molds, brain and in the heart. Because
this phenomenon is global in Nature and arises also in astrophysics
with spiral galaxies, the goal of this research activity has been to
clarify the role of this universal spiraling pattern. The group has
studied numerically the nonlinear partial differential equations of
the theory (ReactionDiffusion) using finite element methods. The
group has recently published moreover a novel and important result:
an electromechanical model of cardiac tissue, on which spiral moves
and causes the domain to deform in space and time (see Fig. 28). This
model is a real breakthrough in the context of theoretical
biophysics, leading to new scenarios in the context of computational
cardiology. In 2015 the group has focused its research on classical
hydrodynamics, evaluating the stress exerted by the fluid on the
domain walls and introducing an indicator of risk for their damage.
Such a methodology, named as “threeband decomposition analysis of
wall shear stress in pulsatile flows”, has been immediately applied
to hemodynamical problems which have been numerically integrated (see
Fig. 29), but results promising also for other problems of physical
and biological sciences and for engineering.
Papers published in 2015
include:

Cherubini C., Filippi S.,
Gizzi A. Loppini, A. "Role of topology in complex functional
networks of beta Cells" Physical Review E, Volume 92, Issue 4,
5 October (2015), Article number 042702.

Bertolaso M., Capolupo A.,
Cherubini C., Filippi S., Gizzi A., Loppini A, Vitiello G, "The
role of coherence in emergent behavior of biological systems"
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine Volume 34, Issue 2, 1 June
(2015), Pages 138140.

Cherubini C., Filippi S.,
Gizzi A., Nestola M.G.C., "On the Wall Shear Stress Gradient in
Fluid Dynamics" Communications in Computational Physics,
Volume: 17, (2015) Issue: 3 Pages: 808821.

Gizzi A., Cherubini C.,
Filippi S., Pandolfi A., "Theoretical and Numerical Modeling of
Nonlinear Electromechanics with applications to Biological Active
Media", Communications in Computational Physics Volume 17
(2015) Issue 1 Pages: 93126

Nestola M.G.C., Gizzi A.,
Cherubini C., Filippi S., "Threeband decomposition analysis in
multiscale FSI models of abdominal aortic aneurysms"
International Journal of Modern Physics C (Online Ready) (2015),
(doi: 10.1142/S0129183116500170)

Gizzi A., RuizBaier R.,
Rossi S., Laadhari A., Cherubini C., Filippi S. "A
threedimensional continuum model of active contraction in single
cardiomyocytes" Modeling, Simulation and Applications Volume
14, (2015), Pages 157176.

Dupraz M., Filippi S.,
Gizzi A., Quarteroni A., RuizBaier R., "Finite element and
finite volumeelement simulation of pseudoECGs and cardiac
alternans", Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences (2015)
Volume 38, Issue 6, 1 April (2015), Pages 10461058.
An
important fundamental research topic is the investigation of
“analogue models of gravity”.
Such models have been used to understand many aspect of gravitational
phenomena, in particular the mechanism of Hawking and
UnruhRadiation, by studying in supersonic flow nozzles. These were
of great help in dispersing criticism of these radiations based on
our ignorance of the divergences of local quantum field theory at
ultrashort distances. Another important analogy is bases on the
relation between EinsteinCartan Physics and the theory of defects in
solids, worked out in detail in the textbook by our adjunct faculty
members H. Kleinert:
<http://users.physik.fuberlin.de/~kleinert/kleinert/?p=booklist&details=1>.
This analogy has recently allowed to understand the equivalence of
Einstein's theory of gravitation with his Teleparallel Theory of
Gravitation as a result of a novel gauge symmetry. The first uses
only the curvature of spacetime to explain gravitational forces,
while the second uses only torsion. The equivalence relies on the
fact that crystalline defects of rotation and translation
(disclinations and dislocations, respectively) are not independent of
each other, but the ones can be understood as superpositions of the
other. Moreover, the analogy has allowed to set up an infinite family
of intermediate theories in which curvature and torsion appear both
<http://klnrt.de/385/385.pdf>.
Finally, all geometries relevant in gravitational physics has been
derived from a completely new theory of multivalued fields
<http://www.physik.fuberlin.de/~kleinert/kleinert/?p=booklist&details=9>.
The
volume: Einstein,
Fermi and Heisenberg, and the birth of relativistic astrophysics
is being completed by R.
Ruffini with contributions by Emanuele
Alesci, Donato Bini, Dino Boccaletti, Andrea Geralico, and Robert T.
Jantzen. This book has
some different goals: 1)
to translate into English a set of papers by Fermi which were
available only in Italian; 2)
to try to understand the reason why, having been one of the greatest
experts on Einstein theory in the earliest years of his life, after
his transfer to Rome and later on to the United States Fermi never
published anything on Einstein theory: the only paper by Fermi
treating general relativity and cosmology was written to prove George
Gamow wrong and Einstein theory not proper to the analysis of
cosmology – on the contrary, the work of Fermi turned out to be the
real starting point of modern relativistic cosmology and proved the
validity of Gamow theory and of course of the Einstein theory of
general relativity; 3) the book also endures on the difficult
dialogue between Einstein and Heisenberg, with some personal
reminiscence, and illustrates how all the developments of the last 50
years have been essentially based on their work as well as on the one
of Fermi.
Other books are:
1. J. Rueda and R. Ruffini,
“Von Kernen zu den Sternen”, Springer, expected in 2016.
3. R. Ruffini, G.V.
Vereshchagin and S.S. Xue, “Oscillations and radiation from
electronpositron plasma”, World Scientific, expected in 2016.
4. V. Belinski and E.
Verdaguer, “Gravitational Solitons”, Second Edition, Cambridge
University Press, expected in 2016.
5. V. Belinski, “Cosmological
Singularity”, Cambridge University Press, expected in 2016.
6. D. Bini, S. Filippi and R.
Ruffini, “Rotating Physical Solutions”, Springer, expected in
2016.
7. C.L. Bianco, L. Izzo, R.
Ruffini and S.S. Xue, “The Canonical GRBs”, World Scientific,
expected in 2016.
8. H.C. Ohanian, R. Ruffini,
“Gravitation and Spacetime”, Third Edition, Norton and Company,
2013.
An oral presentation by Pascal
Chardonnet of the current situation of the IRAP PhD and the Erasmus
Mundus program cosponsored by the European Commission, as well as a
report on the first 28 graduate students enrolled in the program (see enclosure 7).
In 2015 ICRANet actively
participated to the celebration of the International Year of Light
under the aegis of UNESCO celebrating the 100^{th}
Anniversary of the Einstein Equations and the Golden Jubilee of
Relativistic Astrophysics. The main event was represented by the MG
XIV Meeting held at the University of Rome “La Sapienza” from the
12^{th} to the 18^{th} of July 2015 (see Fig. 30),
with the participation of 1200 scientists from more than 50
Countries. A series of satellite meetings was organized as well: the
2^{nd} César Lattes Meeting, Brazil, April 13 – 22, 2015;
the 4^{th} GalileoXu GuangQi Meeting, Beijing, China, May 4
– 8, 2015; the 1^{st} ColombiaICRANet Julio Garavito
Armero Meeting, Bugaramanga – Bogotá, Colombia, November 23 –
27, 2015; the 1^{st} Sandoval Vallarta Caribbean Meeting,
Mexico City, Mexico, December 1 – 5, 2015.
In conclusions, we have
recently made a summary of ICRANet publications in the years
20132015, quoting explicitly the Impact Factor of each Journal where
the publications appeared. I am very happy to include this list as a
concluding remark:

Physical
Review Letters (Impact Factor 7.512, 2014)

Physics
Letters B (Impact Factor 6.131, 2014)

Journal
of High Energy Physics (Impact Factor 6.111, 2014)

The
Astrophysical Journal (Impact Factor 5.993, 2014)

Journal
of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (5.810)

Monthly
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters (Impact Factor
5.521)

The
Astrophysical Journal Letters (Impact Factor 5.339, 2014)

Monthly
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Impact Factor 5.107)

The
European Physical Journal C (Impact Factor 5.084, 2014)

Physical
Review D (Impact Factor 4.643)

Astronomy
& Astrophysics (Impact Factor 4.378, 2014)

Astronomical
Journal (Impact Factor 4.024, 2014)

Nuclear
Physics B (Impact Factor 3.929)

Physical
Review C (Impact Factor 3.733)

Classical
and Quantum Gravity (Impact Factor 3.168, 2014)

Physical
Review A (Impact Factor 2.808)

Physical
Review E (Impact Factor 2.288)

Nuclear
Physics A (Impact Factor 2.202)

Annals
of Physics (Impact Factor 2.103)

Europhysics
Letters (Impact Factor 2.095, 2014)

International
Journal of Modern Physics D (Impact Factor 1.741, 2014)

General
Relativity and Gravitation (Impact Factor 1.771)

International
Journal of Modern Physics A (Impact Factor 1.699, 2014)

Physics
Letters A (Impact Factor 1.683, 2014)

Journal
of Physics A (Impact Factor 1.583, 2014)

Modern
Physics Letters A (Impact Factor 1.198, 2014)

Journal
of Mathematical Physics (Impact Factor 1.176)

New
Astronomy (Impact Factor 1.146)

Astronomy
Reports (Impact Factor 0.943)

Astronomische
Nachrichten (Impact Factor 0.922)

Gravitation
and Cosmology (Impact Factor 0.716)

Journal
of the Korean Physical Society (Impact Factor 0.418)
Acknowledgements
I am happy to express, on
behalf of all the Members of ICRANet and myself, our gratitude to the
Ministers of Foreign Affairs, and to the Ministers of Economy and
Finances, of Armenia, Brazil and Italy, and to the Vatican Secretary
of State, as well as to the Presidents of the University of Arizona
in Tucson, of the Stanford University, and of ICRA.
We are grateful to the
Brazilian Ambassador in Rome, H.E. Ricardo Neiva Tavares, as well as
to the Scientific Attaché in Rome Dr. Luiz Felipe Czarnobai, for
their assistance.
We are equally grateful to the
President of the Republic of Armenia, H.E. Mr. Serzh Sargsyan, to the
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia, H.E. Mr. Edward Nalbandian,
to the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia, H.E. Mr. Garen
Nazarian, and to the Armenian Ambassador in Rome, H.E. Mr. Sargis
Ghazaryan, for succeeding in finalizing the signature and
implementation of the Seat Agreement for ICRANet in Armenia.
We acknowledge the attention of
Min. Roberto Cantone, Dr. Alessandra Pastorelli, and Prof. Immacolata
Pannone, of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International
Cooperation.
We also acknowledge the contact
with the State Committee of Science of Armenia, the Ministério do
Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão of Brazil, and the Ragioneria
Generale of the Ministry of Economy and Finances of Italy.
A special recognition goes to
the activities of the many Ambassadors and Consuls who have greatly
helped in the intense series of activities carried out by ICRANet in
Colombia, Brazil, China, Italy, Mexico.
This year has been marked by
the completion of the seat of Villa Ratti in Nice. We are grateful
for this common effort to the President, Frédérique Vidal, and the
Vice President, Stéphane Ngô Maï, of the University of Nice Sofia
Antipolis. We are grateful to the Mayor of Pescara, Marco
Alessandrini, to the Mayor of Nice, Christian Estrosi, to the Adjunct
for Science, Research and Culture, Dr. Agnes Rampal, to the President
of the National Academy of Science of Armenia, Prof. Radik
Martirosyan, and to the Director of CBPF in Rio de Janeiro, Prof.
Ronald Shellard, for their generous support in granting to ICRANet
the logistics of the Centers in their respective townships.
Clearly, a special mention of
satisfaction goes to all the Scientific Institutions and Research
Centers which have signed with us a collaboration agreement which
include AlFarabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan); ASI
(Italian Space Agency, Italy), BSU (Belarusian State University,
Belarus), CAPES (Brazilian Fed. Agency for Support and Evaluation of
Grad. Education), CBPF (Brazil), State Government of Ceará (Brazil),
CNR (National Research Council, Italy), ENEA (National Agency for new
technologies, energy and the economic sustainable development,
Italy), FAPERJ (Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa
do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), GARR (Italy), ICTP (The Abdus
Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Italy), IFCE
(Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará,
Brasil), IHEP (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of
Sciences, China), IHES (Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques,
France), INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy), INPE
(Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brasil), ITA (Instituto
Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil), LeCosPa (Leung Center for
Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taiwan), NASB (National Academy
of Sciences, Belarus), NAS RA (National Academy of Science, Armenia),
Nice University Sophia Antipolis (France), Pescara University
“D’Annunzio” (Italy), SCSA (State Committee of Science of
Armenia), UAM (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, México), UERJ
(Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil), UFF (Universidade Federal
Fluminense, Brazil), UFPB (Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil),
UFPE (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil), UFRGS
(Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), UFSC
(Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil), UIS (Universidad
Industrial de Santander, Colombia), UNAM (Universidad Nacional
Autonoma De Mexico), UnB (Universidade de Brasília, Brazil), UNIFEI
(Universidade Federal de Itajubà, Brazil), University of Rome
“Sapienza” (Italy), UNS (Universidad Nacional del Sur,
Argentina).
ICRANet, as sponsor of the
IRAPPhD program, expresses its gratitude to AEI – Albert Einstein
Institute – Potsdam (Germany); Bremen University (Germany); Carl
von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg (Germany); CBPF – Brazilian
Centre for Physics Research (Brazil); Ferrara University (Italy);
Indian centre for space physics (India); INPE (Instituto Nacional de
Pesquisas Espaciais, Brasil); Institut Hautes Etudes Scientifiques –
IHES (France); Inst. of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of
Science – IHEPCAS, China; MaxPlanckInstitut für Radioastronomie
– MPIfR (Germany); Nice University Sophia Antipolis (France);
Observatory of the Côte d'Azur (France); Rome University –
“Sapienza” (Italy); Savoie University (France); Shanghai
Astronomical Observatory (China); Stockholm University (Sweden);
Tartu Observatory (Estonia) for their joint effort in creating and
activating this first European Ph.D. program in Relativistic
Astrophysics which has obtained the official recognition of the
Erasmus Mundus program of the European Community. All these
activities were achieved thanks to the dedicated work of Prof. Pascal
Chardonnet.
Finally, thanks goes to the
Physics Department of the University of Rome “Sapienza” for all
the collaboration with ICRA in the teaching, in the electronic links
and in the common research.
A special mention of gratitude,
of course, goes to the administrative, secretarial and technical
staff of ICRANet and ICRA for their essential and efficient daily
support.
